Whole Earth Forecaster Home
When I heard the learn'd astronomer;
When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me;
When I was shown the charts and the diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them;
When I, sitting, heard the astronomer, where he lectured with much applause in the lecture room,
How soon, unaccountable, I became tired and sick;
Till rising and gliding out, I wander'd off by myself,
In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,
Look'd up in perfect silence at the stars.
--- Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, 1900
Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena.
--- Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature, 1836
The grand aim of all science is to cover the greatest number of empirical facts by logical deduction
from the smallest number of hypotheses or axioms.
--- Albert Einstein, Life, 9 Jan 1950
Astronomical Tides Affect Solar Activity
"It is found empirically that solar activity is preceded by planetary conjunctions. A long-range prediction technique has been in use for 2.5 years, which predicts flares and proton events months in advance."
- J.B. Blizard, Denver University. American Physical Society Bulletin #13, June 1968.
"The relationships set forth here imply that certain dynamic forces exerted on the sun by the motions of the planets are the cause of the sunspot activity."
- Paul D. Jose, Aerospace Research, USAF. The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 70. April 1965.
"This work shows not only a good correlation between planetary synodic period resonances with solar activity period, but also a rough correlation between the variations of the resonance period resulting from orbit eccentricity and the variations of the sunspot period."
- Robert M. Wood, McDonnell Douglas, Nature. Vol. 255. May 22, 1975.
"There seems to be a definite relationship between the orbital periods of the planets and the periodic nature of the sunspot cycle, and the relationship depends on a non-linearity in the solar energy conversion system."
- R.A. Burear & L.B. Craine. Electrical Engineering. Washington State University. Nature, Vol. 228. December 5, 1970.
"In summation, after more than 25 years of research in this field of solar system science, I can say without equivocation that there is very strong evidence that the planets, when in certain predictable arrangements, do cause changes to take place in those solar radiations that control our ionosphere. I have no solid theory to explain what I have observed, but the similarity between an electric generator with its carefully placed magnets and the sun with its ever-changing planets is intriguing. In the generator, the magnets are fixed and produce a constant electrical current. If we consider that the planets are magnets and the sun is the armature, we have a considerable similarity to the generator. However, in this case, the magnets are moving. For this reason, the electrical-magnetic stability of the solar system varies widely. This is what one would expect."
- John H. Nelson, RCA Communications. Cosmic Patterns. 1974.
"Air is also moved by the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun. This movement is called a tide. You cannot see an air tide as you see a water tide, but an air tide occurs just as regularly as does a tide in the sea . . . At the earth's surface, the speed of these tides, called lunar winds, is about 1/20 of a mile per hour."
- World Book Encyclopedia. Air.
"In conclusion, the following points can be clearly stated: (a) the influence of the inner planets on the fluctuation of the acceleration of the Sun in inertial space is as important as that of the outer planets; (b) the short-time acceleration and jerk patterns are repetitive with a clear 11.08-year period, agreeing well with the mean sunspot cycle."
Dr. Robert M Wood. Solar Motion and Sunspot Comparison. Nature. October 9, 1965.
Solar Activity Affects Earth's Magnetic Field and Weather
"When solar activity increases and the weak magnetic field that is carried by the solar wind intensifies, providing more shielding of the earth from low-energy galactic cosmic rays, there is believed to be a reduction in ion production in the lower atmosphere that results in the creation of fewer cloud condensation nuclei there and, hence, less low-level cloud cover, which consequently allows more solar radiation to impinge upon the earth and increase surface air temperature. Many people believe this scenario explains much of the global warming that has occurred since the temperature minimum of the Little Ice Age. Support for this hypothesis is provided by the studies of Svensmark and Friis-Christensen (1997), Marsh and Svensmark (2000) and Palle Bago and Butler (2000), who derived a positive relationship between global cosmic ray intensity and low-cloud amount from infrared (IR) cloud measurements contained in the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database for the years 1983-1993.
With respect to the hypothesized relationship between global cosmic ray intensity and low-cloud amount, the authors report that they found 'a positive correlation at low altitudes, which is consistent with the positive correlation between global low clouds and cosmic ray rate seen in the infrared.'"
Marsden, D. and Lingenfelter, R.E. 2003. Solar activity and cloud opacity variations: A modulated cosmic ray ionization model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 60: 626-636.
Further reference: Palle Bago, E. and Butler, C.J. 2000. The influence of cosmic rays on terrestrial clouds and global warming. Astronomy & Geophysics 41: 4.18-4.22.
" . . . the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory showed that magnetic and climatic changes have followed parallel courses during this century (Nature, vol. 242, p. 34) . . . As the Lamont team said, 'a close relationship links changes in the Earth's magnetic field and climate', and they went on to suggest that both effects may be the result of varying solar activity."
- The Jupiter Effect. Gribbin & Plagemann. 1976. p. 155.
"At a recent gathering of the American Geophysical Union in Washington, two physicists from the University of California at Berkeley have continued where Abbot left off. To the amazement of their colleagues, they presented weather data they had collected from satellites, balloons, and ground-based observation posts which showed that there were three times as many thunderstorms when there was a solar flare as when the sun was quiet. The physicists, Drs. Robert Holzworth and Forrest Maze, also found that during a solar flare, the electricity in the Earth's atmosphere builds up tremendously and that it is through lightning that this enormous energy is discharged."
- E.A. Laurence. Cosmic Bonds. 1981. Warner Books.
"Because of this and other evidence we further conclude that a close relationship links changes of the Earth's magnetic field and climate. This may be a direct cause and effect relationship. But Yukutake has suggested that the Earth's magnetic field changes with relation to solar activity and Budyko has shown that the intensity of solar radiation received on ground stations in the northern hemisphere is decreasing since 1938, so we cannot exclude the possibility that both the Earth's magnetic field and climate show parallel reactions to the processes in the Sun."
Goesta Wollin, George J. Kukla, David B. Ericson, William B.F. Ryan, Janet Wollin. Magnetic Intensity and Climate Changes 1925-1970. Nature. Vol. 242. March 2, 1973.
"Here I present evidence which indicates that important climatic features, such as droughts and unusually long 'growing seasons', are dependent on the solar cycle to such an extent that significant progress could be made in forecasting the occurrence of these features if some account were taken of the expected levels of solar activity in the future. I also demonstrate that energetic particles may constitute one form of solar radiation which profoundly affects the lower atmosphere."
J.W. King. Solar Radiation Changes and the Weather. Nature. Vol. 245. October 26, 1973.
The following study may be a critical one in resolving the mechanism problem of how hurricanes and earthquakes may be triggered by changes in our atmosphere.
"Length-Of-Day variations measured by Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometry correspond closely to the variations inferred from changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere, demonstrating that the atmosphere has a significant influence on the earth's rate of rotation. The tidal variations in the rotation rate due to the gravitational effects of the moon and sun have been removed from the data. Exchanges of angular momentum between the atmosphere and the crust account for more than 90 percent of the non tidal, seasonal variations in the rotation rate; they also have a strong influence on shorter-period fluctuations. The large peak in the length of day in early 1983 coincided with El Nino. At that time angular momentum was transferred from the surface to the atmosphere; the earth slowed down and the east-west winds, notably the northern subtropical jet streams, intensified."
William E. Carter, Douglas S. Robertson. Studying the Earth by Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry.
A link is established between planetary motions, the movement of the atmosphere and Earth's rotation, setting up a theoretical link between our atmosphere, hurricanes and earthquakes.
"After a succession of published reports on this work in 1978, 1979, and 1980, Markson (Science) completed significant additional work. He directly correlated cosmic radiation with the only available data sets of ionospheric potential variation and found the expected direct correlation. So now, in his view, there seems to be little doubt that the proposed mechanism is correct, although he and colleagues continue to work with statistical correlations and want more explicit proof. The implication of the direct correlation is that the thunderstorm charging mechanisms are sensitive to conductivity over developing and mature thunderclouds and the electric field intensity near them. A second implication is that there probably is indeed an increase in thunderstorm activity following increases in ionization of the atmosphere.
Markson's work offers an explanation for how solar variability controls the electrification of Earth's atmosphere. And it proposes ways that the changing sun may in turn affect weather. The long-sought physical link may be at hand."
Kendrick Frazier. Our Turbulent Sun.
"'We threw everything at it,' says Livezey (J. Climate 1, 905 (1988), 'and it held up. I would characterize these correlations as highly significant statistically.' The observed correlation between the solar cycle and the temperature at an altitude of about 3.3 kilometers in the west phase was exceeded by randomly generated correlations only two times out of a thousand'."
Richard A. Kerr. Sunspot-Weather Link Holding Up. Science, Vol. 242, p 1124.
"In brief, recent studies make a good case that the sun's radiant output varies over decades and longer time scales and that these variations are playing a significant role in climate change."
Douglas V. Hoyt & Kenneth H. Schatten. The Role of the Sun in Climate Change. Oxford University Press, 1997.
"At the Collm Observatory of the University of Leipzig LF D1 low-frequency total reflection night-time wind measurements have been carried out continuously for more than two decades. Using a multiple regression analysis to derive prevailing winds, tides and the quasi-2-day wave from the half-hourly mean values of the horizontal wind components, monthly mean values of mesopause wind parameters are obtained that can be analyzed with respect to long-term trends and influences of solar variability. The response of the prevailing wind to the 11-year solar cycle differs throughout the year. While in winter no significant correlation between the zonal prevailing wind and solar activity is found, in spring and summer a negative correlation between the TWC can be seen from the measurements. This is connected with stronger vertical gradients of the zonal prevailing wind during solar maximum than during solar minimum. Since the amplitude of the quasi-2-day wave is dependent on the zonal mean wind vertical gradient, this is connected with a positive correlation between solar activity and quasi-two-day wave activity."
On the solar cycle dependence of winds and planetary waves as seen from mid-latitude D1 LF mesopause region wind measurements, Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 16 Issue 12 (1998) pp 1534-1543, C. Jacobi, Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany Fax: +49341221 0937; e-mail: email@example.com.
"The high-speed particle flux (solar wind) escaping from the Sun controls the geomagnetic activity at middle latitudes. The latter is found to be negatively correlated to the difference of atmospheric pressure between January and April averaged out in the area of the Northern Adriatic. This difference is again related to the water volume flowing from the South into the Northern Adriatic Sea and is a necessary (though not sufficient) condition for the occurrence of strong algal-blooms in summer. A physical model involving geomagnetic activity, mean atmospheric pressured difference between latitude 35 °N and 55 °N in the European area and atmospheric pressure difference from winter to spring in the Northern Adriatic basin is proposed. The possibility of predicting the long-term variations of geomagnetic activity allows one to obtain long-term predictions of winter minus spring pressure and therefore indications of the risk of strong summer-time algal-bloom episodes."
Solar Activity and Algal-bloom Occurrences in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Geomagnetic Connection, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Abstract Volume 59 Issue 1/2 (1998) pp 129-134, S. Ferraro (1), A. Mazzarella (2)
(1) Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico, CNR-Trieste, Italy
(2) Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.
"It is evident that fluctuations in a standard ionospheric parameter, the minimum (virtual) height (h$^\prime$F) of the equatorial F-region in the African (Ouagadougou), Asian (Manila) and American (Huancayo) longitudinal sectors, closely resemble changes in solar activity as deduced from the 10.7 cm solar flux index (S), over two solar cycles (1969-91)."
Equatorial ionospheric response to the 10.7 cm radio flux over two sunspot cycles (1969-1991), Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 14 Issue 7 (1996) pp 725-732, L. A. Hajkowicz, Department of Physics, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072, Australia.
"Long series of simultaneous VHF scintillation observations at two stations situated in near magnetic east-west direction in the vicinity of the dip equator in the Indian region have been employed to investigate the night-time ionospheric plasma zonal drifts. The drifts are found to be predominantly easterly. On comparing the magnitudes of the drifts with those results derived earlier by HF fading technique, monitoring signals from two satellites at a station and spaced receiver experiment, their associations with the season and the degree of solar activity are discussed. On a broader scale, the annual mean sunspot number is shown to have a direct control on the derived drift, the positive relationship even on day to day basis with the solar flux is established. However, the relationship, as understood by the slope of the best fit line, in the Indian region (0.27) is found to be weaker when compared with the similar slope (0.45) in the American sector. There appears to be no geomagnetic activity control on the estimated drifts."
Seasonal and solar cycle association of zonal drifts of ionospheric plasma irregularities in the Indian equatorial region, Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 14 Issue 3 (1996) pp 297-303, B. M. Pathan, D. R. K. Rao, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Colaba, Bombay 400005, India.
"The fundamental conclusion of this paper is that short-term changes in total solar irradiance from the Sun may have an effect on the short-term regional climate of North America through global oceanic and atmospheric processes. Annual solar-irradiance variations may create warm and cool ocean water anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean, which can affect streamflow in the Mississippi 5 years later through induced position of ridges and troughs in the jet stream."
A Regression Model for Annual Streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin Based on Solar Irradiance, Charles A. Perry, Proceedings of the 16th Annual Pacific Climate Workshop, May 24-27, 1999.
"The question of whether or not the Earth's climate is influenced by solar activity has received considerable attention since the mid-nineteenth century. Most investigations have adopted the sunspot number as the parameter of solar activity. Recently, however, it has been shown by Friis-Christensen and Lassen (1991) that the mean northern hemisphere temperature, from 1861-1990, follows a strikingly similar trend to the length of the sunspot cycle, suggesting that the recent global warming could, at least in part, arise from changes in solar activity. In view of the importance of this result, we have examined a set of continuous meteorological records, maintained at Armagh Observatory since 1844, to assess, first, whether data from a single site can give meaningful information on global trends, and second, whether the data from this particular site for the period 1844-1866 can be used to extend the baseline of the comparison with solar activity. We find that both are indeed the case and that there is a strong correlation between the solar cycle length and the mean temperature at Armagh over the past 149 years."
Maximum and minimum temperatures at Armagh Observatory, 1844-1992, and the length of the sunspot cycle, Solar Physics (ISSN 0038-0938), vol. 152, no. 1, p. 35-42.
"In this paper we first describe the production of space charge and the way in which it may influence the rate of ice nucleation. Then we review theory and observations of the solar wind modulation of J_z, and the correlated changes in atmospheric temperature and dynamics in the troposphere. The correlations are present for each input, (A, B, and C), and the detailed patterns of responses provide support for the inferred electrical effects on the physics of clouds, affecting precipitation, temperature and dynamics."
Influence of Solar Wind on the Global Electric Circuit, and Inferred Effects on Cloud Microphysics, Temperature, and Dynamics in the Troposphere, Brian A. Tinsley, University of Texas at Dallas, Space Science Reviews, v. 94, Issue 1/2, p. 231-258 (2000).
" . . . increase in the rate of change values of H (geomagnetic horizontal intensity) and F (geomagnetic total intensity) was followed by decrease in temperatures and vice versa."
- Goesta Wollin, John E. Sanders, and David B. Ericson, Columbia University. Abrupt Geomagnetic Variations---Predictive Signals for Temperature changes 3-7 Years in Advance. Climate--History, Periodicity and Predictability. 1987, p. 242.
"This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance."
Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance, White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael,
AA(Scripps Institution of Oceanography), AB(Scripps Institution of Oceanography), AC(Scripps Institution of Oceanography), Technical Report, Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, CA United States, 01/2001.
Weather Affects Humans
"'Weather is a known catalyst for mood swings,' says Dr. Norman Rosenthal, a psychiatrist with the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Md., and author of Seasons of the Mind: Why You Get the Winter Blues (Bantam Books).
'Temperature affects the hypothalamus, that part of the brain that serves as the body's thermostat. Sunlight alters the balance of hormones. Changes in humidity and barometric pressure lead to changes in blood flow and the amount of oxygen reaching the brain.
The elation that so many of us feel in springtime is in fact a physiological response to the increased hours of sunlight. As sunlight strikes our skin, it releases a dormant type of vitamin D into the endocrine system of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands. Ultimately, sunlight helps to trigger the release of the hormones epinephrine and nor epinephrine by the medulla of the adrenal glands.
Both hormones stimulate the heart to produce more blood and also constrict the blood vessels, so that blood pressure rises. Additionally, epinephrine speeds up the transformation of the glycogen into glucose, or sugar, within the liver. Within minutes of these changes, the body is in high gear, and you feel expansive and upbeat.
On overcast days when barometric pressure falls, so too does the level of oxygen in the blood. The weight of the atmosphere pushes down on the skin, constricting capillaries. Less blood---and so less oxygen---gets to the brain. The brain becomes sluggish; it's common to be forgetful or overlook details'."
- Nation's Business, Why You Feel Better When The Sun Shines. April 1990.
"Dr. Peterson documented rhythms in the general population by investigating numbers of births, deaths, suicides, psychotic episodes, sex ratios of newborn infants, and sex ratios of the dead. . . Atmospheric tides were correlated with (these) rhythms. Dr. Peterson concluded that the population was reacting en masse to cosmic forces, the weather being the intermediate link to the cosmos."
"During a 30-year period, from 1920-1950, He (Dr. William F. Petersen, Professor of Pathology, Illinois University Medical School) performed painstaking research that revealed human biological rhythms correlated with weather patterns. I find that both human biorhythms and weather changes can be traced to natural fluctuations in the solar, lunar, and star cycles."
- Arnold L. Lieber, M.D., The Lunar Effect. 1978. Anchor Press/Doubleday.
"Under conditions of high temperature and high population density, responses were found to be significantly more negative than under conditions of comfortable temperature and low population density. The significant temperature effect provides a replication of a previous finding (Griffitt, 1970)."
- Griffitt and Veitch (1971). Influences of Population Density & Temperature on Interpersonal Affective Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 17, #1, p92.
" . . . ambient temperature increased significantly during the seven days preceding the outbreak of collective violence."
- Baron and Ransberger (1978). Ambient Temperature and the Occurrence of Collective Violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 36, #4, p351.
"A synoptic climatological approach is used to investigate linkages between air mass types (weather situations), the daily mean particulate matter with a size of 10 µm or less (PM10) concentrations and all respiratory hospital admissions for the Birmingham area, UK. Study results show distinct differential responses of respiratory admission rates to the six winter air mass types identified. Two of the three air masses associated with above average admission rates (continental anticyclonic gloom and continental anticyclonic fine and cold) also favour high PM10 levels. This association is suggestive of a possible linkage between weather, air quality and health. The remaining admissions-sensitive air mass type (cool moist maritime) does not favour high PM10 levels. This is considered to be indicative of a direct weather-health relationship."
Daily hospital respiratory admissions and winter air mass types, Birmingham, UK, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 43 Issue 1 (1999) pp 21-30,
G. R. McGregor (1), S. Walters (2), J. Wordley (2)
(1) School of Geography, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
(2) Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
"Winter ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality events (ME) were identified in order to establish their degree of meteorological sensitivity. Sensitivity was evaluated using regression of surface meteorological and large-scale atmospheric circulation variables on daily mortality for each mortality event. Critical meteorological variables affecting IHD mortality appear to be local surface dry-bulb and dew-point temperature and large-scale southerly and westerly wind components, atmospheric pressure and vorticity. The rate of change and departure from normal conditions of these variables appear to be especially important for engendering IHD mortality events. Associated with IHD mortality are two broad types of weather conditions: (1) blustery westerly flows and rapidly changing weather from the west and (2) climatologically strong northeasterly to southeasterly flows of cold air, which bring rapidly changing and anomalous thermal conditions to the study area."
The meteorological sensitivity of ischaemic heart disease mortality events in Birmingham, UK,
International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 45 Issue 3 (2001) pp 133-142, G. R. McGregor, School of Geography and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK e-mail: G.R.McGregor@bham.ac.uk.
"An evaluation of the impacts of weather on pollution, specifically, ozone and total suspended particulates concentration for Summer, is examined in four cities in the U.S.: Birmingham, Cleveland, Philadelphia, and Seattle. These cities were selected because of their different climate regimes and their generally good pollutant and meteorological datasets. This paper uses a synoptic climatological approach, which combines a number of atmospheric factors, to better identify the relationships between atmospheric pollution and climatological conditions. Synoptic events represent holistic units of atmospheric conditions which commonly occur at a given locale, and possess specific weather and pollution characteristics. A number of weather variables, including temperature, are used in the development of a synoptic index, which can be used to identify synoptic events associated with specific pollution episodes. Results from the analysis illustrate that there is a substantial difference in pollution loads under different synoptic patterns, and that the cities do have substantially different relationships. Information from this study could be used to assist in the analysis of the differential impacts of weather and pollution upon human morbidity. Specific information as to the linkages between the synoptic weather patterns, pollution concentrations, and human health could be used in the development of weather/health watch-warning systems to alert the public that a synoptic episode is imminent."
Relationships between Synoptic Climatology and Atmospheric Pollution at 4 US Cities, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Abstract Volume 62 Issue 3/4 (1999) pp 163-174, J. S. Greene (1), L. S. Kalkstein (2), H. Ye (3), K. Smoyer (4).
(1) Department of Geography and Environmental Verification and Analysis Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, U.S.A.
(2) Center for Climatic Research, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, U.S.A.
(3) Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, U.S.A.
(4) Department of Geography, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.
"A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapor pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modeling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979) . . . Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates."
Longitudinal modeling of respiratory symptoms in children, Int J Biometeorol, Uwe Schlink1, Gisela J. Fritz2, Olf Herbarth1 and Matthias Richter1
Department of Human Exposure Research and Epidemiology, UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, PO Box 500135, 04301 Leipzig, Germany
Environmental Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Germany.
"A significant relationship was found between the incidence of cardiovascular and neurological diseases and the occurrence of hot stress, while the presence of cold and very cold days was closely related with increases of bronchial asthma in adults and children."
International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 42 Issue 2 (1998) pp 77-83
Biometeorological classification of daily weather types for the humid tropics, Int J Biometeorol, Luis B. Lecha Estela, Centro Provincial de Meteorologia, Ave. 52 No. 2318 entre 23 y 25, Cienfuegos, CP 55100, Cuba.
"Ross River virus (RRV) is the most important vector-borne disease in Australia. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System has confirmed that its incidence is often greatest in the state of Queensland, where there is a clear seasonal pattern as well as interannual variability. Previous studies have examined relationships between large-scale climate fluctuations (such as El Niño Southern Oscillation) and vector-borne disease. No previous study has examined such relationships with the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), another large-scale climate fluctuation. We employ time-series analysis techniques to investigate cycles inherent in monthly RRV incidence in Queensland, Australia, from January 1991 to December 1997 inclusive. The presence of a quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series that is out of phase with the climatic QBO is described. Quantitative analyses using correlograms and periodograms demonstrate that the quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series is statistically significant, at the 95% level, above the noise. Together with the seasonal cycle, the quasi-biennial cycle accounts for 77% of the variance in Queensland RRV cases. Regression analysis of QBO and summer rainfall in three climatic zones of Queensland indicates a significant association between QBO and rainfall in the subtropical southeastern part of the state. These results suggest an indirect influence of the QBO on RRV incidence in Queensland, via its influence on climate in this region. Our findings indicate that the QBO may be a useful predictor of RRV at several months lead, and might be used by public health authorities in the management and prevention of this disease."
The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and Ross River virus incidence in Queensland, Australia, Int J Biometeorol, Sinead J. Done1, Neil J. Holbrook1, and Paul J. Beggs1
Department of Physical Geography, Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia.
"A better understanding of the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the climatic anomalies it engenders, and malaria epidemics could help mitigate the world-wide increase in incidence of this mosquito-transmitted disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of using ENSO forecasts for improving malaria control. This paper analyses the relationship between ENSO events and malaria epidemics in a number of South American countries (Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela). A statistically significant relationship was found between El Niño and malaria epidemics in Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. We demonstrate that flooding engenders malaria epidemics in the dry coastal region of northern Peru, while droughts favor the development of epidemics in Colombia and Guyana, and epidemics lag a drought by 1 year in Venezuela. In Brazil, French Guiana, and Ecuador, where we did not detect an ENSO/malaria signal, non-climatic factors such as insecticide sprayings, variation in availability of anti-malaria drugs, and population migration are likely to play a stronger role in malaria epidemics than ENSO-generated climatic anomalies. In some South American countries, El Niño forecasts show strong potential for informing public health efforts to control malaria."
The El Niño Southern Oscillation and malaria epidemics in South America, Int J Biometeorol (2002) 46: 81-89, Alexandre S. Gagnon1, Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic2, and Andrew B. G. Bush2
Department of Geography, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G3, Canada, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel.: +1-416-979-8901, Fax: +1-416-979-3886
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 1-26 Earth Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E3, Canada.
"We carried out a statistical study of the influence of meteorological and day-of-the-week factors on the intrinsic emergency patients transported to hospitals by ambulance. Multiple piecewise linear regression analysis was performed on data from 6,081 emergency admissions for 1 year between April 1997 and March 1998 in Fukuoka, Japan. The response variable was the daily number of emergency patients admitted with three types of disease: cerebrovascular, respiratory and digestive diseases. The results showed that the number of emergency patients admitted daily with cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with temperature on the day of admission and whether the day was Sunday. As it became colder than 12 °C, emergency admissions of patients with cerebrovascular disease increased drastically, reaching a plateau at 4 °C. On the 3rd and 7th days after the temperature fell below 10 °C, the daily admission of patients with respiratory disease significantly increased. We also observed a weak association between emergency admissions of patients suffering from digestive disease and rising barometric pressure on the day of admission."
Association of meteorological and day-of-the-week factors with emergency hospital admissions in Fukuoka, Japan, Int J Biometeorol (2002) 46: 38-41, Toshio Makie1, , Muneaki Harada1, Naoko Kinukawa1, Hiroyoshi Toyoshiba1, Takeharu Yamanaka1, Tsuyoshi Nakamura2, Masako Sakamoto3 and Yoshiaki Nose1
Department of Medical Information Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan
Biostatistics and Mathematics, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Nagasaki University, Japan
Deputy Mayor of Fukuoka.
"The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between hospital emergencies and weather conditions by analyzing summer and winter cases of patients requiring attention at the emergency room of a hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hospital data have been sorted into seven different diagnostic groups as follows: (1) respiratory, cardiovascular and chest-pain complaints; (2) digestive, genitourinary and abdominal complaints; (3) neurological and psychopathological disorders; (4) infections; (5) contusion and crushing, bone and muscle complaints; (6) skin and allergies and (7) miscellaneous complaints. In general, there is an increase of 16.7% in winter while, for group 2 and group 6, there are more patients in summer, 54% and 75% respectively. In summer, the total number of patients for group 6 shows a significant positive correlation with temperature and dew-point temperature, and a negative correlation with the sea-level pressure for the same day. In winter, the same relationship exists, however its correlation is not as strong. The lags observed between these three variables: maximum dew-point temperature, maximum temperature, minimum air pressure and the peaks in admissions are 1, 2 and 4 days respectively. In winter, increases in temperature and dew point and decreases in pressure are followed by a peak in admissions for group 2. In winter, there are significantly more cases in group 5 on warm, dry days and on warm, wet days in the summer."
Association between weather conditions and the number of patients at the emergency room in an Argentine hospital, Int J Biometeorol (2002) 46: 42-51, Matilde Rusticucci1, , M. Laura Bettolli1 and M. de los Angeles Harris2
Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria - Pab. II, (1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina
Clínica "La Sagrada Familia", Buenos Aires, Argentina.
"Meteorotropic associations of heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were investigated in a clinically healthy 48-year-old man in Kiev. His electrocardiogram (ECG) was determined over 50 days by fitting him with an ambulatorily wearable device; various natural physical environmental variables were also monitored. The mean inter-beat interval, the standard deviation of these intervals, the spectral power in several frequency ranges, the power ratio of the approx. 10.5-s/approx. 3.6-s spectral components and other aspects of HRV were computed over consecutive 14.4-min intervals. Together with ordinary meteorological variables, geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) and fluctuations of atmospheric pressure (FAP) in the range 0.01-0.10 Hz (10-100 s) were measured. The assessable infradian spectra (with frequencies lower than 1 cycle/28 hours) of all HRV parameters showed two major components with periods of about 3.5 and 10 days. Two environmental variables, FAP and wind speed (with which FAP is closely related), revealed both of these rhythms and showed the greatest cross-spectral coherence (0.70-0.98) with corresponding oscillations of HRV. Less specific but statistically significant product-moment correlations with major HRV indices were also found; most of these were with FAP, but correlations with air temperature, humidity, wind speed and geomagnetic disturbances were also found. Long-term ECG recording, essential in the detection of infradian rhythms, proved to be sensitive to physical environmental variables, notably meteorological ones. FAP, usually neglected since its role has not been considered in previous biometeorological studies, or some factor closely related to FAP is probably involved in synchronizing or influencing the approximately 3.5-day HR and HRV rhythms in humans."
Natural environmental associations in a 50-day human electrocardiogram, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 45 Issue 2 (2001) pp 90-99,
A. Delyukov (1), Yu. Gorgo (1), G. Cornélissen (2), K. Otsuka (3), F. Halberg (2)
(1) Biological Faculty, Taras Shevchenko University, Kiev, Ukraine
(2) University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Director, Halberg Chronobiology Center, 715 Mayo Building (Delivery Code 8609), 420 Delaware St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455,
e-mail: email@example.com, Tel.: +612 624 6976, Fax: +612 624 9989
(3) Tokyo Women"s Medical University, Daini Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
"This study set out to determine the possible influence of variations in atmospheric pressure on mortality in the Madrid Autonomous Region (MAR), taking into account the possible confounding effect of other atmospheric variables. The study was based on daily mortality data from the MAR Revenue and Excise Authority, meteorological data from Getafe Observatory and air pollution data from the Madrid Municipal Automatic Air Pollution Monitoring Grid. A time-series analysis was performed, using Box-Jenkins modeling and controlling for the respective confounding variables. Furthermore, the different variables studied (pressure, temperature, pollutants, etc.) were used to produce a multivariate model of the different causes of mortality. A significant association was found between anticyclonic trend and mortality with circulatory causes in the medium-long term and anticyclonic trend and mortality with respiratory causes in the long term."
Relationship between atmospheric pressure and mortality in the Madrid Autonomous Region: a time-series study, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 45 Issue 1 (2001) pp 34-40, S. González, J. Díaz, M. S. Pajares, J. C. Alberdi, A. Otero, C. López,
University School of Public Health (Centro Universitario de Salud Pública de Madrid), C/ General Oráa, 39, E-28006 Madrid, Spain, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: +34-1-5642499, Fax: +34-1-4116696.
"Slight atmospheric pressure oscillations (APO) in the extra-low-frequency range below 0.1 Hz, which frequently occur naturally, can influence human mental activity. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments with a group of 12 healthy volunteers exposed to experimentally created APO with amplitudes 30-50 Pa in the frequency band 0.011-0.17 Hz. Exposure of the subjects to APO for 15-30 min caused significant changes in attention and short-term memory functions, performance rate, and mental processing flexibility. The character of the response depended on the APO frequency and coherence. Periodic APO promoted purposeful mental activity, accompanied by an increase in breath-holding duration and a slower heart rate. On the other hand, quasi-chaotic APO, similar to the natural perturbations of atmospheric pressure, disrupted mental activity. These observations suggest that APO could be partly responsible for meteorosensitivity in humans."
The effects of extra-low-frequency atmospheric pressure oscillations on human mental activity,
International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 43 Issue 1 (1999) pp 31-37,
A. A. Delyukov, L. Didyk, Lomonosova 30/2, kv.25, Kiev-22, 252022, Ukraine.
"Despite the pervasiveness of the idea that arthritis is influenced by the weather, scientific evidence on the matter is sparse and non-conclusive. This study, conducted in the Australian inland city of Bendigo, sought to establish a possible relationship between the pain and rigidity of arthritis and the weather variables of temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and precipitation. Pain and rigidity levels were scored by 25 participants with osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis four times per day for 1 month from each season. Mean pain and rigidity scores for each time of each day were found to be correlated with the meteorological data. Correlations between mean symptoms and temperature and relative humidity were significant (P <0.001). Time of day was included in the analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that meteorological variables and time of day accounted for 38% of the variance in mean pain and 20% of the variance in mean rigidity when data of all months were considered. A post-study telephone questionnaire indicated 92% of participants perceived their symptoms to be influenced by the weather, while 48% claimed to be able to predict the weather according to their symptoms. Hence, the results suggest (1) decreased temperature is associated with both increased pain and increased rigidity and (2) increased relative humidity is associated with increased pain and rigidity in arthritis sufferers."
The association between arthritis and the weather, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 40 Issue 4 (1997) pp 192-199, Helen Aikman, Department of Nursing, La Trobe University, Bendigo, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, 3552 Victoria, Australia.
Earth's Magnetic Field Affects Humans
Microscopic magnets have been found in the human brain that might help explain possible links between cancer and electromagnetic fields, scientists said Monday.
'They are little biological bar magnets' made of crystals of the iron mineral magnetite, said geobiologist Joseph Krischvink of the California Institute of Technology. 'This really is an exciting discovery.' . . . Homing pigeons, whales, salmon, honeybees and some shellfish and bacteria have microscopic magnets . . . "
- Associated Press, Omaha World-Herald. Tiny Crystal Magnets Found in Human Brain. May 12, 1992.
"Every organism including the human organism, demonstrates cycles of biological and mental-emotional activity closely linked to geomagnetic force-field patterns and more complex force-field interrelations, both planetary and solar-terrestrial in scope. Human behavior is influenced through the direct current control system of the brain by the terrestrial magnetic field, solar and planetary conditions, and both high and low energy cosmic radiation."
- Dr. Robert O. Becker, Medical Research, Syracuse University.
"I found in my research that this permeability (of blood cells) is under the direct control of (Earth's) geomagnetic field. Apparently the control is connected with changes occurring in the water molecules of the membranes."
- Dr. Alexander Dubrov, USSR Academy of Sciences. Soviet Life. Jan 1972.
"There is incontrovertible evidence that, excluding all known forces influencing living things, there is a cyclic information in the form of radiation penetrating all ordinary containers that impresses all living things corresponding to atmospheric and lunar periods."
- Frank A. Brown, NW University. Journal of Florida Medical Association. 56:1365, May 1960.
"Rutger Wever (the Max Planck Institute in Munich) built two underground rooms to isolate people from all clues to the passage of time, but one room was also shielded from naturally occurring electromagnetic fields. Those exposed to the earth's field kept to a rhythm close to 24 hours. People kept from contact with the earth's field, on the other hand, became thoroughly desynchronized.
Wever next introduced various electric and magnetic fields into his completely shielded room. Only one had any effect on the amorphous (out-of-rhythm) cycles. An infinitesimal electric field pulsing at 10 hertz dramatically restored normal patterns to most of the biological measurements. Wever concluded that this frequency in the micropulsations of the earth's electromagnetic field was the prime timer of biocycles. In light of this work, the fact that 10 hertz is also the dominant frequency of the EEG (electrical current of the brain) in all animals becomes another significant bit of evidence that every creature is hooked up to the earth electromagnetically through its DC system . . . In 1983, using magnetic measurements in selective-shielding experiments, Baker (R. Robin, University of Manchester bionavigation researcher) and his coworkers reported locating magnetic deposits close to the pineal and pituitary glands in the sinuses of the human ethmoid bone, the spongy bone in the center of the head behind the nose and between the eyes. I suspect that this organ transmits the biocycle timing cues from the earth field's micropulsations to the pineal gland."
- The Body Electric, Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life. Robert O. Becker, 1985, pp 249, 255.
"Possibly the most ambitious pertinent investigation is that of Dull and Dull (Wright, S., Anat. Rec., 44, 287 (1929)). In an analysis of approximately 40,000 cases over a period of 60 months they demonstrated graphically a clearly observable relationship between the 67 magnetic storms occurring during this time, and the incidence of nervous and mental diseases and suicides.
(In our own study) daily admissions to seven central New York State psychiatric hospitals and to the Psychiatric Service of a Veterans Administration General Medical and Surgical Hospital during July 1, 1957-October 31, 1961, were obtained. Transfers were excluded . . . In general, the tentative conclusion of the pilot study can be reaffirmed: a significant relationship has been shown between psychiatric disturbance as reflected in hospital admissions and natural magnetic field intensity."
Howard Friedman, Robert O. Becker. Geomagnetic Parameters and Psychiatric Hospital Admissions. Nature. November 16, 1963.
"After analyzing six years' worth of data, two geophysicists (S.R.C. Malin, B.J. Srivastava, Nature) have concluded that there is a significant relationship between heart attacks and changes in the earth's magnetism."
New York Times. April 24, 1979. Heart Attacks Tied To Magnetic Change.
"Timing of the patients' complaints showed that most of their sufferings could be related to high air electricity, rather than to excessive heat or humidity."
Sulman, Felix Gad. The Effect of Air Ionization, Electric Fields, Atmospherics and Other Electric Phenomena On Man and Animal. p 143. 1980 by Charles C. Thomas.
In a fascinating study on geomagnetic storms and depression, British researchers found that male hospital admissions with a diagnosis of depression rose 36.2% during periods of geomagnetic activity as compared with normal periods. The investigators hypothesized that this increase may have been caused by a phase advance in the circadian rhythm of melatonin production.
Kay RW. Geomagnetic storms: association with incidence of depression as measured by hospital admission. British Journal Psychiatry 1994 164(3): 403-9.
"My primary philosophical goal is to discern the commonalities that exist between the sciences and to integrate the fundamental concepts. I assume that the human brain, its microstructure and intricate activity are the source of all human knowledge. To that end I have emphasized geophysics because it is a central focus for the physical sciences and neuroscience (originally physiological psychology). One of the major consequences of this bilateral interest has been the pursuit and discovery of subtle interactions between the geophysical/meteorological environment and human behavior."
Dr. Michael Persinger, a professor at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario Canada since 1971.
Prof. Kirschvink has originated several ideas aimed at increasing our understanding of how biological evolution has influenced, and has been influenced by, major events on the surface of the Earth. A major contribution includes the idea that the magnetic field sensitivity in animals might be due to small chains of biogenic magnetite functioning as specialized sensory organelles; this work has provided a solid biophysical basis for understanding magnetic effects on animal behavior, and has actually led to the discovery of these new sensory organs in higher animals.
Dr. Joseph L. Kirschvink, Professor of Geobiology, Princeton University.
"Alignment of serial epidemiological, physiological, including electrocardiographic data with variations in galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetic activity, and atmospheric pressure suggests the possibility of links among these physical environmental variations and health risks, such as myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes, among others. An increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction in association with magnetic storms, reported by several investigators from Russia, Israel, Italy and Mexico, accounts in Minnesota for a 5% (220 cases =year) increase in mortality during years of maximal solar activity by comparison with years of minimal solar activity. Magnetic storms are also found to decrease heart rate variability (HRV), indicating a possible mechanism since a reduced HRV is a prognostic factor for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction."
Non-Photic Solar Associations of Heart Rate Variability and Myocardial Infarction
Germaine Cornelissen a,Franz Halberg a,Tamara Breus b,Elena V.Syutkina c,
Roman Baevsky b,Andi Weydahl d,Yoshihiko Watanabe e,Kuniaki Otsuka e,
Jarmila Siegelova f,Bohumil Fiser f;g,Earl E.Bakken h
a Halberg Chronobiology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455,USA
b Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia
c Institute of Pediatrics,Scienti c Center for Children 's Health, Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia
d Finnmark College, Alta, Norway
e Tokyo Women 's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
f St. Anna Hospital, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
g Ministry of Health, Prague, Czech Republic
h North Hawaii Community Hospital Inc., Kamuela, HI, USA.
"The synchronization of biological circadian and circannual rhythms is broadly viewed as a result of photic solar effects. Evidence for non-photic solar effects on biota is also slowly being recognized. The ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes from rabbits, the time structure of blood pressure and heart rate of neonates, and the heart rate variability of human adults on earth and in space were examined during magnetically disturbed and quiet days, as were morbidity statistics. Alterations in both the about-daily (circadian) and about-weekly (circaseptan) components are observed during disturbed vs. quite days. The about-weekly period of neonatal blood pressure correlates with that of the local geomagnetic disturbance index K."
The Biological Effects of Solar Activity.
Breus TK, Pimenov KY, Cornelissen G, Halberg E, Syutkina EV, Baevsky RM, Petrov VM, Orth-Gomer K, Akerstedt T, Otsuka K, Watanabe Y, Chibisov SM.
Biomed Pharmacother 2002;56 Suppl 2:273s-283s. BiblioCrono - No. 13 - 30/03/2003, Novidades em Cronobiologia e Neurociências, Laboratorio de Cronobiologia - LabCrono, Departamento de Fisiologia - UFRN Natal, RN Brasil, Prof. John Fontenele Araujo.
"Six of the major influenza epidemics, at least as far back as 1917, were synchronized with the sunspot cycle. Furthermore, all but one of these epidemics involved an antigenic shift, wherein the flu virus developed a new coat of protein, which made it resistant to the immunities the population had built up over the years. There is no known mechanism by which solar activity can abet virus evolution, except penetrating radiation, which is inherently destructive.
Lowered human immunity may also be a consequence of solar activity, according to Solco W. Tromp, director of the Biometeorological Research Center in the Netherlands. Over 30 years, research using blood data from 730,000 male donors led Tromp to the conclusion that the blood sedimentation rate varies with the sunspot cycle. Since this rate parallels the amount of albumin and gamma globulin, resistance to infection may also follow the lead of the sun."
Freitas, Robert A., Jr.; "Sunspots and Disease," Omni, 6:40, May 1984.
"The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1) the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2) a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community."
Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity, Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 13 Issue 11 (1995) pp 1211-1222.
T. K. Breus (1), G. Cornelissen (2), F. Halberg (2), A. E. Levitin (3)
(1) Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyznaya 84/32, 117810 Moscow, Russia
(2) Chronobiology Laboratories, University of Minnesota, 5-187 Lyon Laboratories, 420 Washington Ave. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
(3) Institute of Earth Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 142092 Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russia.
"The influence of solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) on human homeostasis has long been investigated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between monthly proton flux (>90 MeV) and other SA and GMA parameters and between proton flux and temporal (monthly) distribution of total and cardiovascular-related deaths. The data from 180 months (1974-1989) of distribution in the Beilinson Campus of the Rabin Medical Centre, Israel, and of 108 months (1983-1991) from the Kaunas Medical Academy, were analyzed and compared with SA, GMA and space proton flux (>90 MeV). It was concluded: (1) monthly levels of SA, GMA and radiowave propagation (Fof2) are significantly and adversely correlated with monthly space proton flux (>90 MeV); (2) medical-biological phenomena that increase during periods of low solar and/or geomagnetic activity may be stimulated by physical processes provoked by the concomitant increase in proton flux; (3) the monthly number of deaths related (positively or negatively) to SA are significantly and adversely related to the space proton flux (>90 MeV)."
Space proton flux and the temporal distribution of cardiovascular deaths, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 40 Issue 2 (1997) pp 113-116,
E. Stoupel (1), J. Abramson (1), S. Domarkiene (2), M. Shimshoni (3), J. Sulkes (1)
(1) Toor Heart Institute, Cardiology Division, Epidemiology Unit, Rabin Medical Centre, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqva, 49100 Israel
(2) Institute of Cardiology, Kaunas Medical Academy, Lithuania
(3) The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
"CONCLUSION: This paper provides evidence of a non negligible GMS effect on stock market returns in the United States, even after controlling for the influence of other environmental factors and well-known market seasonals. The World and several international stock market indices also appear to be negatively affected by geomagnetic storms during their recovery phase. This effect is statistically and economically significant, and seems to generate some trading gains. For the US, the GMS effect is similar across indices, ranging from -0.84 to -2.51 percent of average annual returns. We also document a more pronounced GMS effect in the pricing of smaller capitalization stocks. We rationalize this finding by noticing that institutional ownership is higher for large cap stocks, while small cap stocks are being held mostly by individuals. Since investment decisions of individual investors are more likely to be affected by sentiments and mood than those of institutional investors, we expect the GMS effect to be more pronounced for small cap stocks. Overall, results are consistent with some of the recent findings in the psychology literature, are robust to different measures to capture the GMS effect, and do not appear to be an artifact of heteroskedastic patterns in stock returns. As a supporting argument, we used clinical studies showing that geomagnetic storms have a profound effect on people’s moods; and in turn people’s moods have been found to be related to human behavior, judgments and decisions about risk. By using related medical and psychological arguments, our results complement recent findings of a significant SAD effect [Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi (2003)] and of a significant sunshine effect [Hirshleifer and Shumway (2003)] in stock market returns. This paper represents an attempt of establishing a link between psychology and economics. Future research should further explore the relation between people’s mood and behavior in a financial setting, possibly controlling for cross-country differences."
Playing the Field: Geomagnetic Storms and the Stock Market, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Paper No. 2003-5b., Cesare Robotti & Anya Krivelyova, February 2003.
"Our recent results suggest that 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) enhance ultraviolet (UV)-induced tumorigenesis in mouse skin . . . Our findings suggest that SSR induces p53-independent apoptosis in mouse skin and that the apoptotic response may be inhibited by exposure to MF. The exposure schedule did not alter the MF effect."
p53Independent apoptosis in UV-irradiated mouse skin: possible inhibition by 50 Hz magnetic fields,
Timo Kumlin1, , Päivi Heikkinen1, Veli-Matti Kosma2, Leena Alhonen3, Juhani Jänne3 and Jukka Juutilainen1
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Kuopio and Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
A.I. Virtanen Institute, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.
Belisheva, N. M., A. N. Popov, N. V. Petukhova, L. P. Pavlova, K. S. Osipov, S. E.
Tkachenko, and T. I. Varanova (1995). Qualitative and quantitative character-istics
of geomagnetic field variations with reference to functional state of human
brain. Biofizika 40 (5), 1005-1012.
Bergiannaki, J., T. J. Paparrigopoulos, and C. N. Stefanis (1996). Seasonal pattern
of melatonin excretion in humans: Relationship to daylength variation rate and
geomagnetic field fluctuations. Experientia 52 (3), 253-258.
Cao, M. and J. Wei (2001). Stock market returns: A temperature anomaly. Un-published
Manuscript, University of Toronto.
Clore, G. L. and W. G. Parrott (1991). Moods and their vicissitudes: Thoughts
and feelings as information. In J. Forgas (Ed.), Emotion and Social Judgments,
pp. 107-123. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Clore, G. L., N. Schwarz, and M. Conway (1994). Affective causes and consequences
of social information processing. In R. S. Wyer Jr and T. K. Srull (Eds.), Hand-book
of Social Cognition (Second ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
Dichev, I. D. and T. D. Janes (2001). Lunar cycle effects in stock returns. Unpub-lished
Manuscript, University of Michigan.
Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (BTM). Psy-chological
Bulletin 117, 39-66.
Frijda, N. (1988). The laws of emotion. American Psychologist 43, 349-358.
Goetzmann, W. N. and N. Zhu (2003). Rain or shine: Where is the weather effect?
Working Paper 9465, NBER.
Halberg, F., G. Cornelissen, and et al. (2000). Cross-spectrally coherent 10.5-
and 21-year biological and physical cycles, magnetic storms and myocardial
infarctions. Neuroendocrinology Letters 21, 233-258.
Hirshleifer, D. and T. Shumway (2003). Good day sunshine: Stock returns and the
weather. Journal of Finance 58 (3), 1009-1032.
Johnson, E. J. and A. Tversky (1983). Affect, generalization, and the perception
of risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45, 20-31.
Kamstra, M. J., L. A. Kramer, and M. D. Levi (2003). Winter blues: A SAD stock
market cycle. American Economic Review 93 (1), 324-343.
Kay, R. W. (1994). Geomagnetic storms: Association with incidence of depression
as measured by hospital admission. British Journal of Psychiatry 164, 403-409.
Kuleshova, V. P., S. A. Pulinets, E. A. Sazanova, and A. M. Kharchenko
(2001). Biotropic effects of geomagnetic storms and their seasonal variations.
Biofizika 46 (5), 930-934.
Lo, A. W. and D. V. Repin (2001). The psychophysiology of real-time financial risk
processing. Working Paper 8508, NBER.
Loewenstein, G. F. (2000). Emotions in economic theory and economic behavior.
American Economic Review 90, 426-432.
Loewenstein, G. F., E. Weber, C. Hsee, and N. Welch (2001). Risk as feelings.
Psychological Bulletin. Forthcoming.
Oraevskii, V. N., V. P. Kuleshova, Iu.F. Gurfinkel', A. V. Guseva, and S. I.
Rapoport (1998). Medico-biological effect of natural electromagnetic variations.
Biofizika 43 (5), 844-848.
Persinger, M. A. (1980). The Weather Matrix and Human Behavior. Praeger, New
Persinger, M. A. (1987). Geopsychology and geopsychopathology: Mental processes
and disorders associated with geochemical and geophysical factors. Experien-tia
43 (1), 92-104.
Petty, R. E., F. Gleicher, and S. M. Baker (1991). Multiple roles for affect in
persuasion. In J. Forgas (Ed.), Emotion and Social Judgments, pp. 181-200.
Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Raps, A., E. Stoupel, and M. Shimshoni (1992). Geophysical variables and behav-ior:
LXIX. solar activity and admission of psychiatric inpatients. Perceptual
and Motor Skills 74, 449-450.
Rotton, J. and I. W. Kelly (1985a). A scale for assessing belief in lunar effects:
Reliability and concurrent validity. Psychological Reports 57, 239-245.
Rotton, J. and I. W. Kelly (1985b). Much ado about the full moon: A meta-analysis
of lunar-lunacy research. Psychological Bulletin 97, 286-306.
Rotton, J. and M. Rosenberg (1984). Lunar cycles and the stock market:
Time-series analysis for environmental psychologists. Unpublished Manuscript,
Florida International University.
Russell, C. T. and R. L. McPherron (1973). Semiannual variation of geomagnetic
activity. Journal of Psychological Research 78 (1), 92.
Sandyk, R., P. A. Anninos, and N. Tsagas (1991). Magnetic fields and seasonality
of affective illness: Implications for therapy. International Journal of Neuro-science
58 (3-4), 261-267.
Saunders, E. M. (1993). Stock prices and Wall Street weather. American Economic
Review 83 (5), 1337-1345.
Schwarz, N. (1986). Feelings as information: Informational and motivational func-tions
of affective states. In R. Sorrentino and E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of
Motivation and Cognition, Volume 2, pp. 527-561. Guilford Press, New York.
Schwarz, N. and H. Bless (1991). Happy and mindless, but sad and smart? The
impact of affective states on analytic reasoning. In J. Forgas (Ed.), Emotion
and Social Judgments, pp. 55-71. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Schwarz, N. and G. L. Clore (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgements of
well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology 45, 513-523.
Shumilov, O. I., E. A. Kasatkina, and O. M. Raspopov (1998). Heliogeomagnetic
activity and extreme situation level inside of the polar cap. Biophysics 43 (4),
Solnik, B. (1993). The performance of international asset allocation strategies using
conditioning information. Journal of Empirical Finance 1, 33-55.
Stoilova, I. and T. Zdravev (2000). Influence of the geomagnetic activity on the
human functional systems. Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society 3 (4), 73-
Tarquini, B., F. Perfetto, and R. Tarquini (1998). Melatonin and seasonal depres-sion.
Recenti Progressi in Medicina 89 (7-8), 395-403. University of Florence.
Usenko, G. A. (1992). Psychosomatic status and the quality of the piloting in flyers
during geomagnetic disturbances. Aviakosm Ekolog Med 26 (4), 23-27.
Wong, A. and B. Carducci (1991). Sensation seeking and financial risk taking in
everyday money matters. Journal of Business and Psychology 5 (4), 525-530.
Wright, W. F. and G. H. Bower (1992). Mood effects on subjective probability
assessment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 52, 276-
Yuan, K., L. Zheng, , and Q. Zhu (2001). Are investors moonstruck? Lunar phases
and stock returns. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Michigan.
Zakharov, I. G. and O. F. Tyrnov (2001). The effect of solar activity on ill and
healthy people under conditions of nervous and emotional stresses. Advances in
Space Research 28 (4), 685-690.
J. Aarons, J. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation 10-900 cycles per second. J. Geophys. Res. 61 (1956): 647.
--------and M. Hinissart. Low frequency noise in the range 0.5-20 cycles per second. Nature 172 (1953): 682-683.
Abbas, M., and H. Poeverlein. Propagation of hydromagnetic waves in current-carrying regions of the ionosphere and magnetosphere (parallel propagation). Radio Sci. 3 (1968): 1010-1012.
Abeles, M., and M. H. Poeverlein, Jr. Multispike train analysis. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
Adey, W. R. Cerebral structure and information storage. In Progress in Physiological Psychology, ed. E. Stellar and J. M. Sprague, 3, 181-200. New York: Academic Press, 1970.
--------Discrimination among states of consciousness by EEG measurement. Electroencephalog. Clin. Neurophysiolog. 22 (1967): 22-29.
--------Effects of electromagnetic radiation on the nervous system. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 15.
--------Evidence for cooperative mechanisms in the susceptibility of cerebral tissue to environmental and intrinsic electric fields. In The Functional Linkage in Biomolecular Systems, ed. F. O. Schmitt, D. M. Schneider, and D. Crothers. New York: Raven Press, 1975.
--------Extracellular microenvironment. In A. K. Katchalsky, V. Rowland, and R. Blumenthal, Dynamic Patterns of Brain Cell Assemblies, 80-85. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974.
--------Frequency and power windowing in tissue interactions with weak electromagnetic fields. Proc. IEEE 68 (January 1980).
--------The influences of impressed electrical fields at EEG frequencies on brain and behavior. In Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity, ed. N. Burch and H. I. Altschuler, 363-390. New York: Plenum Press, 1975.
--------Introduction to the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the nervous system. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (Feb. 28, 1975): 15-20.
--------Ionic nonequilibrium phenomena in brain cell interactions with EM fields. 179th Annual Meeting, American Chemical Society, Physical Chemistry Section, Houston, Tex., March 1980.
--------Ionic nonequilibrium phenomena in tissue interactions with electromagnetic fields. In ACS Symposium Series 157, Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, ed. K. H. Illinger, 272-297. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1981.
-------- Long-range electromagnetic field interactions at brain cell surfaces. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
--------Models of membranes of cerebral cells as substrates for information storage. Bio Systems 8 (1977): 163-178.
--------Nonlinear effects of electromagnetic fields on whole organisms, living tissues and tissue preparations. In Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems, ed. W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence, 3-22. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.
--------Organization of brain tissue: Is the brain a noisy process? Int. J. Neurosci. 3 (1972): 271-284.
--------Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields. Physiol. Rev. 1981).
--------and S. M. Bawin. Brain interactions with weak electric and magnetic fields. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 15 (1977).
--------and-------- .Nonequilibrium processes in binding and release of brain calcium by low-level electromagnetic fields. Advances in Chemistry Series 188, 361-378. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1980.
--------and A. F. Lawrence, ed. Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.
--------and D. O. Waiter. Application of phase detection and averaging techniques in computer analysis of EEC records in the cat. Exp. Neurol. 7 (1963): 186-209.
--------et al. Impedance changes in cerebral tissue accompanying a learned discriminative performance in the cat. Exp. Neurol. 7 (1963): 259-281.
Adler, R. A study of locking phenomena in oscillators. Proc. IEEE 61 (October 1973).
Adrian, D. J. Auditory and visual sensations stimulated by low-frequency electric currents. Radio Sci. 12 (November-December 1977): 243-250.
Albanese, R. A., and E. L. Fell. Radiofrequency radiation and chemical reaction systems. Second Annual Meeting,
Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Al'pert, Y. L., and D. S. Fligel. Propagation of ELF and VLF waves near Earth. New York: Consultants Bureau, 1970.
Altmann, G. Die physiologische Wirkung elektrischer Felder auf Organismen. Arch. Met. Geophys. Biol. 17 (1969): 269-290.
Alvarez, A. M. Apparent points of contact between the daily course of the magnetic components of the earth together with certain solar elements, and the diastolic pressure of human beings and the total count of their leukocytes. Puerto Rico J. Publ. Health Trop. Med. 10 (1935): 374-395.
Anderson, D. J., and M. J. Correia. The detection and analysis of point processes in biological signals. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
Anninos, P. A. Electromagnetic fields generated from neuronal activity. T.I.T.J. Life Sci. 3 (1973): 15-18.
Aschoff, J. Internal dissociation and desynchronization of circadian systems. XXI Cong. Aviat. Space Med. (1973): 225.
--------and U. Gerecke. Desynchronization of human circadian rhythms. Jap. J. Physiol. 17 (1967): 450-457.
--------et al. Interdependent parameters of circadian activity rhythms in birds and man. In Biochronometry, ed. M. Menaker, 3-27. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1971.
Asian, E. Broad-band isotropic electromagnetic radiation monitor. IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. 21 (1972): 421-424.
Axelrod, J. The pineal gland: A neurochemical transducer. Science 184 (1974): 1341.
Azarnia, R., and W. R. Loewenstein. Parallel correction of cancerous growth and of a genetic defect of cell-to-cell communication. Nature 241 (1973): 455-457.
--------et al. Intercellular communication and tissued growth. VI. Failure of exchange of endogenous molecules between cancer cells with defective junctions and noncancerous cells. J. Membr. Biol. 10 (1972): 247-258.
Azarnia, R., et al. The membrane junctions in communicating and noncommunicating cells, their hybrids, and segregants. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 71 (1974): 800-884.
Baranski, S. Histological and histochemical effects of microwave irradiation on the central nervous system of rabbits and guinea pigs. Am. J. Phys. Med. 51 (1972): 182-191.
--------and Z. Edelwejn. EEG and morphological investigations upon influence of microwaves on central nervous system. Acta Physiol. Pol. 18 (1967): 423.
--------and-------- . Experimental and electroencephalographic studies of microwave effects on the nervous system. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 109-116.
Barlow, J. S. Rhythmic activity induced by photic stimulation in relation to intrinsic alpha activity of the brain in man. Electroencephalog. Clin. Neurophysiol. 12 (1960).
Barnothy, M., ed. Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields. 2 vols. New York: Plenum Press, 1964, 1969.
Barnwell, F. H. A day-to-day relationship between the oxidative metabolism and world-wide geomagnetic activity. Biol. Bull. 119 (1960): 303.
Bass, L., and W. J. Moore. A model of neuron excitation based on the Wien Dissociation Effect. In Structural Chemistry and Molecular Biology, ed. A. Rich and N. Davidson, 356-369. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1968.
Bassett, C. A. L. Electrical effects in bone. Sci. Am. 18 (1965).
-------- et al. Augmentation of bone repair by inductively coupled electromagnetic fields. Science 184 (1974): 575-577.
Bawin, S. M., and W. R. Adey. Interactions between nervous tissues and weak environmental electric fields. Proceedings of the 1975 Annual Meeting, U.S. National Committee, International Union of Radio Science, 1976.
-------- and --------. Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak environmental electric fields oscillating at low frequency. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 73 (1976): 1999-2003.
--------et al. Effects of modulated very high frequency fields on specific brain rhythms in cats. Brain Res. 58 (1973): 365-384.
-------- et al. Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975).
-------- et al. Possible mechanisms of weak electromagnetic field coupling in brain tissue. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 5 (1978): 67-76.
-------- et al. Weak, amplitude-modulated radiofrequency fields modify 4,5 Ca 2+ release from cat cerebral cortex in vivo. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Becker, R. O. The effect of magnetic fields upon the central nervous system. In Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields, vol. 2, ed. M. F. Barnothy, 207-214. New York: Plenum Press, 1969.
-------- The neural semiconduction control system and its interaction with applied electrical current and magnetic fields. Proc. XI Int. Cong. Radiol. 11 (1965): 1753-1759.
Beischer, D. E., and J. D. Grissett. Extremely low frequency radiation and man. Proceedings, Department of Defense Electromagnetic Research Workshop, ed. P. Taylor, Commander, USN. 1971. (Limited distribution.)
-------- and V. R. Reno. Magnetic fields and man: Where do we stand today? AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 95, Pt. III: Special Biophysical Problems in Aerospace Medicine, ed. A. M. Pfister, C12, 1-9. Paris: Necker-Enfants Malades , 1971.
-------- and --------. Microwave energy distribution measurements in proximity to man and their practical application. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 473-479.
-------- et al. Exposure of man to low intensity magnetic fields in a coil system. NAMI-1018 NASA R- 39. Pensacola, Fla.: Naval Aerospace Medical Institute, Oct. 3, 1967.
Beischer, D, E., et al. Exposure of man to magnetic fields alternating at extremely low frequency. NAMRL Report no. 1180, July 1973.
Bender, H. A. A study of the effect of ELF electromagnetic fields upon Drosophila melanogaster. Final report, University of Notre Dame, November 1976.
Bennett, M. V. L. Electroreception. In Fish Physiology, ed. W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall, vol. 5, Sensory Systems and Electric Organs, 493-574. New York: Academic Press, 1971.
Berry, M., and A. C. Riches. An immunological approach to regeneration in the central nervous system. Brit. Med. Bull. 30 (1974): 135-140.
Bhaumik, D., et al. On the possibility of Bose condensation in the excitation of coherent modes in biological systems. Phys. Lett. 56A (1976): 145-148.
Biggs, M. W. Studies on biomagnetic effect in mice. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Bise, W. Low power radio-frequency and microwave effects on human electroencephalogram and behavior. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 10 (1978).
Blumenthal, R., et al. Membrane excitability and dissipative instabilities. J. Membr. Biol. 2 (1970): 351- 374.
Bodenstein, G., and H. M. Praetorius. Feature extraction from the electroencephalogram by adaptive segmentation. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
Boenko, I. D., and F. G. Shakhgel'Dyan. On the role of reflexogenic vascular zones in changes of blood coagulation during the effect of sound frequency electromagnetic field. Fiziol. Zb. SSSR Imeni I.M. Sechen. 54 (1968): 937-941.
Bowart, W. H. Operation Mind Control. New York: Dell, 1978.
Bowman, R. R. Some recent developments in the characterization and measurement of hazardous electromagnetic fields. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation (Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18, Oct. 1973), ed. P. Czerski et al., 217-227. Warsaw: Polish Medical Publ., 1974.
Branover, C. G., et al. A study of the behavior of the eel in natural and artificial magnetic fields and an analysis of its reception mechanism. J. Ichthyol. 11 (1971): 608-614.
Brezowsky, H. and W. R. Ranscht-Froemsdorff. Herzinfarkt und Atmospherics. Z. angew. Bader. u. Klimaheilk. 13 (1966): 679-686.
Brodeur, P. The Zapping of America: Microwaves, Their Deadly Risk and the Coverup. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.
Brown, F. Response to pervasive geophysical factors and the biological clock problems. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 1960.
Brown, F. A.. Jr. Responses of the planarian, Dugesia, and the protozoan, Paramecium, to very weak horizontal magnetic fields. Biol. Bull. 123 (1962): 264-281.
-------- Responses of the planarian, Dugesia, to very weak horizontal electrostatic fields. Biol. Bull. 123 (1962): 282-294.
-------- Some orientational influences of nonvisual, terrestrial electromagnetic fields. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 188 (1971): 224-241.
-------- and C. S. Chow. Interorganismic and environmental influences through extremely weak electromagnetic fields. Biol. Bull. 144 (1973): 437-461.
Bullock, T. H. Alternation of frequency of pacemaker nerve cells by imposed direct current. Anat. Rec. 84 (1942): 18-19.
-------- Conduction and transmission of nerve impulses. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 13 (1950): 261-280.
-------- An essay on the discovery of sensory receptors and the assignment of their functions together with an introduction to electroreceptors. In Handbook of Sensory Physiology, ed. A. Fessard, III/3. Electroreceptors and Other Specialized Receptors in Lower Vertebrates, 1-12. New York: Springer- Verlag, 1974.
Bullock, T. H. Initiation of nerve impulses in receptor and central neurons. Rev. Mod. Phys. 31 (1959): 504-514.
-------- . Neuronal integrative mechanisms. In Recent Advances in Invertebrate Physiology, ed. B. T. Scheer, 1-20. Eugene, Ore.: University of Oregon Press, 1957.
-------- . Problems in the comparative study of brain waves. Yale J. Biol. Med. 17 (1945): 657-679.
-------- . et al. Electrical polarization of pacemaker neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 6 (1943): 85-98.
Burch, N., and H. I. Altschuler, eds. Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity. New York: Plenum Press, 1975.
Callaway, E., and P. R. Harris. Coupling between cortical potentials from different areas. Science 183 (1974): 873-875.
Campbell, D. J., and J. A. Kiernan. Mast cells in the central nervous system. Nature 210 (1966): 756-757.
Campbell, P. A., ed. Medical and Biological Aspects of the Energies of Space. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.
Campbell, W. H. Geomagnetic pulsations. In Physics of Geomagnetic Pulsations, ed. S. Matsushita and W. H. Campbell, 821-909. New York: Academic Press, 1967.
Carr, E. F. Anomalous alignment in the smectric phase of a liquid crystal owing to an electric field. Phys. Rev. Lett. 24 (1970): 807-809.
Corson, R. W. Anti-fatigue device works by creating electric field. Product Eng. (Feb. 13, 1967)
Cetas, T. C. A birefringent crystal optical thermometer for measurements of electromagnetically induced heating. USNC/URSI-IEEE Meeting, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., October 1975.
Changeux, J. P., et al. On the cooperativity of biological membranes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 57 (1967): 335-341.
Chapman, F. W., and D. L. Jones. Observations of earth-ionosphere cavity resonances and their interpretation in terms of a two-layer ionosphere model. U.S. Nat. Bur. Stand. J. Res. Radio Sci. 68D (November 1964)
Chapman, S. W., and W. D. Mathews. Audiofrequency spectrum of atmospherics. Nature 172 (1953): 495.
Chatterjee, I., et al. Electromagnetic energy deposition in man for near-field exposure conditions. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Childers, D. G. Evoked responses: electrogenesis, models, methodology and wavefront reconstruction and tracking analysis. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
Cleary, S. F., ed. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation. Richmond, Va., Sept. 17-19, 1969. U.S. Dept. HEW, BRH/DBE 70-2, June 1970.
Coate, W. B., et al. Project Sanguine Biological Effects Test Program pilot studies. Final report, Hazleton Laboratories, November 1970.
Cohen, D. Magnetic fields of the human body. Phys. Today (August 1975): 35-43.
-------- . Magnetoencephalography: Detection of the brain's electrical activity with a superconducting magnetometer. Science 175 (1972): 664-666.
-------- . Magnetoencephalography: Evidence of magnetic fields produced by alpha-rhythm currents. Science 161(1968): 784-786.
-------- . and E. Givler. Magnetomyography: Magnetic fields around the human body produced by skeletal muscles. Appl. Phys. Lett. 21 (1972): 114-116.
-------- et al. Magnetocardiograms taken inside a shielded room with a superconducting point- contact. Appl. Phys. Lett. 16 (1970): 278-280.
Cohn, T. E. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of sensitivity in neural systems. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
[-------- .] Compilation of Navy Sponsored ELF Biomedical and Ecological Research Reports, vols. I, II (February 1975), vol. III (January 1977). Bethesda, Md.: Naval Medical Research and Development Command, February 1975. Committee on Biosphere Effects of Extremely Low-Frequency Radiation. Biologic effects of electric and magnetic fields associated with proposed Project Seafarer. Report of the Committee, Division of Medical Sciences, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Academy of Science, 1977.
Cone, R. A. Transductive coupling in the visual system. In Functional Linkage in Biomolecular Systems, ed. F. O. Schmitt, D. M. Schneider, and D. M. Crothers, 234-246. New York: Raven Press, 1975.
Cooke, J., and E. C. Zeeman. A clock and wavefront model for control of the number of repeated structures during animal morphogenesis. J. Theor. Biol. 58 (1976): 455-476.
Cope, F. W. Biological sensitivity to weak magnetic fields due to biological superconductive Josephson junctions? Physiol. Chem. Phys. 5 (1973): 173-176.
-------- . Evidence from activation energies for superconductive tunneling in biological systems at physiological temperatures. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 3 (1971): 403- 410.
--------. Magnetoelectric charge states of matter-energy, a second approximation. Part II: Magnetoelectrets as possible evidence of magnetoelectric dipoles in solids, and as a possible mechanism for biological effects of magnetic fields. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 11 (1973): 461-463.
-------- . Superconductive Josephson junctions--A possible mechanism for detection of weak magnetic fields and of microwaves by living organisms. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Crane, J. S., and H. A. Pohl. Theoretical models of cellular dielectrophoresis. J. Theor. Biol. 37 (1972): 15- 41.
Creutzfeldt, O. D., et al. Relations between EEC phenomena and potentials of single cortical cells . II Spontaneous and convulsoid active. Electroencephalog. Clin. Neurophysiolog. 20 (1966): 19-37.
Crosby, E. C., et al. Correlative Anatomy of the Nervous System. New York: Macmillan, 1962.
Csaba, G. Regulation of mast-cell formation. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1972. Czerski, P. Experimental models for the evaluation of microwave biological effects. Proc. IEEE 63 (1975): 1540-1544.
-------- . Influence of microwaves on the hematopoietic system with particular reference to the lymphocyte. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 232-242.
--------, et al. Influence of microwave radiation on the hematopoietic system. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation (Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973), ed. P. Czerski et al., 67-74. Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers, 1974.
--------, et al. Microwave irradiation and the circadian rhythm of bone marrow cell mitosis. J. Microwave Power 9 (1974) : 31-37.
Damaschke, V. K., and G. Becker. Korrelation der Atmungsintensität von Termitgen zu Aenderungen der Impulsfolgefrequenz der Atmospherics. Z. Naturforschg. 19 (1964): 157-160.
Davidson, R. O. Methods in Nonlinear Plasma Theory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.
Davis, A. R., and W. C. Rawls, Jr. The Magnetic Effect. Pompano Beach, Fla.: Exposition Press, 1980.
Davydov, A. S. Biology and quantum mechanics. Kiev: Nauka, 1979.
-------- . Nonlinear vibrational phenomena in biology. Academy of Science, Ukrainian SSR, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Preprint ITP-79-69E, 1979.
-------- . Solitons as energy carriers in biological systems. Studia Biophys. 62 (1977): 1-8.
-------- . Solitons in molecular systems. Phys. Scripta 20 (1979): 387-334.
De Felice, L. J., and R. L. De Haan. Membrane noise and intercellular communication. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
de la Warr, G. W. Biomagnetism. Oxford: de la Warr Laboratories, 1967.
de Lorge, J. O. Behavior and temperature in rhesus monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency-low intensity magnetic fields. NAMRL, Report no. 1203, May 1974.
-------- . Effects of magnetic fields on behavior in nonhuman primates. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
-------- . Operant behavior of rhesus monkeys in the presence of extremely low frequency-low intensity magnetic and electric fields: Experiment 1. NAMRL, Report no. 1115, 1972.
-------- . --------: Experiment 2. NAMRL, Report no. 1179, March 1973.
-------- . --------: Experiment 3. NAMRL, Report no. 1179, November 1973.
-------- . A psychobiological study of rhesus monkeys exposed to extremely low-frequency-low intensity magnetic fields. NMRL, Report no. 1203, May 1974.
-------- and J. D. Grissett. Behavioral effects in monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Int. J. Biometeorol. 21 (1977): 357-365.
-------- and M. J. Marr. Operant methods assessing the effects of ELF electromagnetic fields. In ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects, ed. M. A. Persinger, 145-175. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.
Dern, H., and J. B. Walsh. Analysis of complex waveforms. In Physical Techniques in Biological Research, ed. W. L. Nastuk, vol. VI, chap. 3. New York: Academic Press, 1963.
Devyatkov, N. D. Influence of millimeter-band electromagnetic radiation on biological objects. Sov. Phys. Usp. 16 (1974): 568-574. Transl.
Dmitriev, V. G., et al. Nonlinear perception of infrared radiation in the 800-1355 nm range with human eye. Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9 (1979): 475-479. Transl.
Doty, R. W. Electrical stimulation of the brain in behavioral context. Ann. Rev. Psychol. 20 (1969): 289- 320.
Dowling, J. E., et al. The interplexiform cell: A new type of retinal neuron. Invest. Ophthalmol. 15 (1976): 919-926.
Drago, G. P., and S. Ridella. A cell electrical model. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Dropp, M. M. Mast cells in the mammalian brain. Am. Zoologist 13 (1973): 514.
-------- . Mast cells in the mammalian brain. I: Distribution. Acta Anat. 94 (1976):1-21.
Dubrov, A. P. The Earth's Magnetic Field and Life. Ed. Yu. A. Kholodov. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1974.
Dumanskij, J. D., and M. G. Sandala. The biologic and hygienic significance of electromagnetic fields of superhigh and ultrahigh frequencies in densely populated areas. Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation (Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, Oct. 15- 18, 1974). Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers, 1974.
Durfee, W. A., et al. Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields in domestic birds. Technical Report, Phase I (Continuous Wave), University of Rhode Island, March 1975.
Durney, C. H., et al. Qualitative explanations of near-field sar characteristics based on experimental and theoretical observations. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Eccles, J. C. The Physiology of Synapses. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1964.
Einaudi, F., and J. R. Wait. Analysis of the excitation of the earth-ionosphere waveguide by a satellite- borne antenna. Pts. I and II. Can. J. Phys. 49, (1971): 1452-1460.
Einolf, C. W., and E. I. Carstensen. Low frequency dielectric dispersion in suspensions of ion-exchange resins. J. Phys. Chem. 75 (1971): 1091-1099.
Eisenberg, D., and W. Kauzmann. The Structure and Properties of Water. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
Elul, R. Dipoles of spontaneous activity in the cerebral cortex. Exp. Neurol. 6 (1962): 285-299.
Elul, R. Fixed charge in the cell membrane. J. Physiol. 189 (1967): 351-365.
-------- . The genesis of the EEG. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 15 (1972): 227-272.
-------- . Relation of neuronal waves to EEG. In A. K. Katchalsky, V. Rowland, and R. Blumenthal, Dynamic Patterns of Brain Cell Assemblies, 97-101. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974.
Emlen, S. T. Can birds obtain directional information from the earth's magnetic field? Am. Zoologist 7 (1967): 806.
Enright, J. T. Heavy water slows biological timing processes. Z. vergl. Physiol. 72 (1971): 1-16.
Estes, W. K., and B. F. Skinner. Some quantitative properties of anxiety. J. Exp. Psychol. 29 (1941): 390- 400.
Faber, D. F., and H. Korn. A neuronal inhibition mediated electrically. Science 179 (1973): 577-578.
Fife, P. C. Asymptotic analysis of reaction-diffusion wave fronts. Rocky Mountain J. Math. 7 (1977): 389- 415.
-------- . Stationary patterns for reaction-diffusion equations. In Nonlinear Diffusion, ed, W. E. Fitzgibbon and H. F. Walker, 81-121. San Francisco: Pitman, 1977.
Finkelstein, D., and J. Powell. Earthquake lightning. Nature 228 (1970): 759-760.
Fischer, W. H., et al. Laboratory studies of fluctuating phenomena. Int. J. Biometeorol. 12 (1968): 15-19.
Flanagan, W. F., et al. Non-metallic electrode system for recording EEG and ECC in electromagnetic fields. Physiol. and Behav. 8 (1977): 531.
Formanchk, V. C., and A. K. Valentino. An improved ELF electric field probe. Technical Memorandum no. 2, HTR no. E6249, March 1974. HTRI, 1825 K St., N.W., Washington, DC.
Frankenhauser, B., and A. L. Hodgkin. The action of calcium on the electrical properties of squid axons. J. Physiol. 137 (1957): 218-244.
Frey, A. H. Auditory system response to radio frequency energy. Aerospace Med. 32 (1961): 1140-1142.
-------- . Behavioral biophysics. Psychol. Bull. 63 (1965): 322-337.
-------- . Behavioral effects of electromagnetic energy. In Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves, ed. D. Hazzard, 11-22. HEW Publ. (FDA) 77- 8026, July 1977.
-------- . Brain stem evoked responses associated with low intensity pulses of UHF energy. J. Appl. Physiol. 23 (1967): 984-988.
-------- . Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy. J. Appl. Physiol. 17 (1962): 689-692.
-------- . and S. R. Feld. Avoidance by rats of illumination with low power nonionizing electromagnetic energy. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 89 (1975): 183-188.
Frey, K. W., and I. Goeke. Wetter und Radiospeicherung der Schilddruse. Aertzliche Forschg. 23 (1969): 373-375.
Friede, R. L. Topographic Brain Chemistry. New York: Academic Press, 1966.
Friedman, H., and R. J. Carey. Biomagnetic stresser effects in primates. Physiol. and Behav. 9 (1972): 171- 173.
-------- . and -------- The effects of magnetic fields upon rabbit brains. Physiol. and Behav. 4 (1969): 539-541.
-------- . and H. A. Taub. The transcephalic DC potential and reaction time performance. Psychophysiol. 5 (1969): 504-509.
-------- . et al. Effect of magnetic fields on reaction time performance. Nature 213 (1967): 949-956.
-------- . et al. Geomagnetic parameters and psychiatric hospital admissions. Nature 200 (1963): 626- 628.
Friend, A. W., et al. Low frequency electric field induced changes in the shape and motility of amoebas. Science 187 (1975): 357-359.
Frohlich, H. Evidence for Bose condensation-like excitation of coherent modes in biological systems. Phys. Lett. 51A (1975): 21-22,
-------- . The extraordinary dielectric properties of biological materials and the action of enzymes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 72 (1975): 4211-4215.
-------- . Long-range coherence. and energy storage in biological systems. Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2 (1968): 641-649.
-------- . Long-range coherence and the action of enzymes. Nature 228 (1970): 1093.
-------- . Low frequency vibrations of macro molecules. Phys. Lett. 44A (1973): 385.
-------- . Possibilities of long- and short-range electric interactions of biological systems. In Brain Interactions with Weak Electric and Magnetic Fields, M.I.T. Neuroscience Research Program Bulletin, 1976.
-------- . Selective long-range dispersion forces between large systems. Phys. Lett. 29A (1972): 153-154.
Furchtgott, E. Behavioral effects of ionizing radiations. Psychol. Bull. 60 (1963): 157-199.
Furedi, A. A., and I. Ohad. Effects of high-frequency electric fields on the living cell. I. Behaviour of human erythrocyte in high-frequency electric fields and its relation to their age. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 71 (1964): 1-8.
Galejs, J. ELF and VLF propagation for models of a perturbed ionosphere. Radio Sci. 5 (1970): 1041- 1044.
-------- . Schumann resonances. U.S. Nat. Bur. Stand. J. Res. Radio Sci. 69D (August 1965).
-------- . Terrestrial extremely low frequency propagation. In Natural Electromagnetic Phenomena below 30 Kc/s, ed. D. F. Bleil, 205-260. New York: Plenum Press, 1964.
-------- . Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic waves. Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1972. [See pp. 129-138.]
Gardiner-Medwin, A. R. Membrane transport to solute migration affecting the brain cell microenvironment. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 18 (1980): 208-226.
Gauquelin, M., and F. Gauquelin. A possible hereditary effect on time of birth in relation to the diurnal movement of the moon and the nearest planets: It's relationship with geomagnetic activity. Int. J. Biometeorol. 11 (1967): 341.
Gavalas-Medici, R. [J.], and S. R. [Day-]Magdaleno. An evaluation of possible effects of 45 Hz, 60 Hz and 75 Hz electric fields on neurophysiology and behavior of monkeys. Phase 1. Continuous wave. ONR Technical Report Control no. N00014-69-A-0200-4037, National Technical Information Service no. AD-A008-404/6GA, Springfield, Va., April 1975.
-------- . and S. R. Day-Magdaleno. Extremely low frequency, weak electric fields affect schedule- controlled behaviour of monkeys. Nature 261 (1976): 256-258.
Gavalas [-Medici], R. J., et al. Effect of low-level low frequency electric fields on EEG and behavior in Macaca nemestrina. Brain Res. 18 (1970): 491-501.
Geacintov, N. E. Orientation of biological membranes and cells in magnetic fields. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Geel, S. E., and P. S. Timiras. Influence of neonatal hypothyroidism and of thyroxine on the acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase activities in the developing central nervous system of the rat. J. Endocrinol. 80 (1967): 1069-1074.
Gibson, R. S., and W. F. Moroney. The effect of extremely low magnetic fields on human performance: A preliminary study. NAMRL, Report no. 1175, August 1974.
Glansdorff, P., and I. Prigogine. Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1971. [See pp. 61-95.]
Gollender, H. Eosinophil and avoidance correlates of stress in anterior cingulate cortex lesioned rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 64 (1967): 40-48.
Goodman, E. M., et al. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on Physarum polycephalum. Radiat. Res. 66 (1976): 531-540.
Graf, E. R., et al. Radiation noise energy and human physiology in deep space. American Astronautical Society, 1976 National Symposium: Saturn v. Apollo, and Beyond, (EN-2) (1976): 1-18.
Grant, E. H. The structure of water neighboring proteins, peptides and amino acids as deduced from dielectric measurements. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 125 (1965): 418-427.
Green, D. E. A framework of principles for the unification of bioenergetics. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 227 (1974): 6-45.
Green, J. D., et al. Rabbit EEG "theta" rhythm, its anatomical source and relation to activity in single neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 23 (1962): 403-420.
Green, J. P. Histamine. In Handbook of Neurochemistry, ed. A. Lajtha, vol. IV, Control Mechanisms in the Nervous System, 221-250. New York: Plenum Press, 1970.
Grewal, G. S., et al. Measurements of RF absorption in biological models due to near-field exposure. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Grissett, J. D. Biological effects of electric and magnetic fields associated with ELF communications systems. Proc. IEEE 68 (January 1980).
-------- . Exposure of man to a simulated lunar environment, physiological and nervous system effects. Diss., Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va., 1970.
-------- . Exposure of squirrel monkeys for long periods to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields: Central-nervous system effects as measured by reaction time. NAMRL, Report no. 1146, October 1971.
-------- . and J. de Lorge. Central-nervous-system effects as measured by reaction time in squirrel monkeys exposed for short periods to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. NAMRL, 1971.
Grodsky, I. T. Neuronal membrane, a physical synthesis. Math. Biosci. 28 (1976): 191-219.
-------- . Possible physical substrates for the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological membranes. Ann. N.Y, Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 117-123.
Guy, A. W. Biophysics-energy absorption and distribution. AGARD Lecture Series 78, Radiation Hazards (Non-ionizing Radiations--Biological Effects and Safety Considerations, September 1975.
-------- . A note on EMP safety standards. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 22 (1975): 464-467.
-------- . Quantitation of induced electromagnetic field patterns in tissue and associated biologic effect. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation (Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973), ed. P. Czerski et al., 203-316. Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers, 1974.
-------- . et al. Determination of power absorption in man exposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields by thermographic measurements of scale models. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 23 (1976): 361-371.
-------- . et al. Electrophysiological effects of electromagnetic fields on animals. In Fundamental and Applied Aspects on Non-ionizing Radiation (Proceedings of the Rochester Intemational Conference on Environmental Toxicity, Rochester, N.Y., 5-7 June 1974), ed. S. M. Michaelson et al., 167-211. New York: Plenum Press, 1975.
Hagiwara, S., et al. Physiological properties of electroreceptors of some gymnotids. J. Neurophysiol. 25 (1962): 430-449.
Hallgren, R. Inductive neural stimulator. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 20 (1973): 470-472.
Hamer, J. R. Biological entrainment of the human brain by low-frequency radiation. Northrop Space Laboratories, Report no. NSL 65-199, 1965.
-------- . Effects of low level, low frequency electric fields on human reaction time. Commun. Behav. Biol. 2 (1968): 217-222.
-------- . Effects of low-level, low-frequency electric fields on human time judgment. Proc. Fifth Biometeorol. Cong., ed. S. W. Tromp and W. W. Weihe, 129. Amsterdam: Springer-Verlag, 1969.
Hansen, K, M. Some observations with a view to possible influence of magnetism upon the human organism. Acta Med. Scand. 97 (1938): 339-364.
Hansson, H.-A. Effects on nervous tissue of exposure to electromagnetic fields. In Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems, ed. W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence, 65. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.
Hardy, J. D. Posterior hypothalamus and the regulation of body temperature. Federat. Proc. 32 (1973): 1564-1571.
Hauf, R., and J. Wiesinger. Biological effects of technical electric and electromagnetic VLF fields. Int. J. Biometeorol. 17 (1973): 213-215.
Hazzard, D., ed. Symposium on Biologic Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves. HEW Publ. (FDA), 77-8026, July 1977.
Healey, R., and J. Reed. The Behaviour of Slow Electrons in Gasses. Sydney: Amalgamated Wireless, 1941. [On the Luxembourg effect.]
Heinmets, F., and A. Herschman. Considerations on the effects produced by superimposed electric and magnetic fields in biological systems and electrolytes. Phys. Med. Biol. 5 (1961): 271-288.
Herin, R. A. Electroanesthesia: A review of the literature (1819-1965). Activ. Nervosa Superior 10 (1968): 439-454.
Hines, J. N. Antennas. In Radio Engineering Handbook, 5th ed., ed. K. Henney, chap. 20, p. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.
Hirsch, F. G., D. R. McGiboney, and T. D. Harnish. The physiologic consequences of exposure to high density pulsed electromagnetic energy. Int. J. Biometeorol. 12 (1968): 263-270.
Hodgkin, A. L., and A. G. Huxley. A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J. Physiol. (London) 234 (1952): 500-544.
Holubar, J. The Sense of Time. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1969.
Holzer, R. E., and O. C. Deal. Low audio-frequency electromagnetic signals of natural origin. Nature 177 (1956) : 536-537.
Hong, F. T. Mechanisms of magnetic field interactions with retinal rods. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Hughes, H. C. On the directional dependency of "slow trail" extremely low-frequency atmospheric wave-forms. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29 (1967): 545-552.
Hunt, E. L., et al. Behavioral effects of pulsed microwave radiation. In Biological Effects of Non-ionizing Radiation, ed. P. D. Tyler, 440-453. New York: New York Academy of Science, 1975.
Hyden, H. A calcium-dependent mechanism for synapse and nerve cell membrane modulation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 71 (1974): 2965-2968.
-------- . Changes in brain protein during learning. In Macromolecules and Behaviour, ed. G. B. Ansell and P. B. Bradley, 3-26. London: MacMillan, 1973.
Ibrahim, M. Z. M. The mast cells of the mammalian central nervous system. 1. Morphology, distribution, and histochemistry. J. Neurol. Sci. 21 (1974): 431-478.
-------- . The mast cells of the mammalian nervous system. 2. The effect of proton irradiation in the monkey. J. Neurol. Sci. 21 (1974): 479-499.
Illinger, K. H. Interaction between microwave and millimeter-wave electromagnetic fields and biologic systems: Molecular mechanisms. In Biological Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation (Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973), ed. P. Czerski, et al., 160-172. Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers, 1974.
-------- . Molecular mechanisms for microwave absorption in biological systems. In Symposium Proceedings: Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation, BRH/DBE 70-2, PB 193898, 112-115. Rockville, Md.: 1970.
Jacobs, J. A. Geomagnetic Micropulsations. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1970.
Jaggard, D. L., and J. L. Lords. Cellular effects: Millimeter waves and Raman spectra--Report of a panel discussion. Proc. IEEE 68 (January 1980).
Jasper, H. H., and C. Stefanis. Intracellular oscillatory rhythms in pyramidal tract neurons. Electroencephalog. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18 (1965): 541-553.
Johnson, C. C., and A. W. Guy. Nonionizing electromagnetic wave effects in biological materials and systems. Proc. IEEE 60 (1972): 692-718.
-------- . and M. L. Shore, eds. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves: Selected Papers of the USNC/USRI Annual Meeting, Boulder, Colo., 20-23 Oct. 1975, vols. I-II. HEW Publication no. (FDA) 77-8010, 1976.
-------- . et al. Fiberoptic liquid crystal probe for absorbed radio-frequency power temperature measurement in tissue during irradiation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 527-531.
Jones, R. W. Biological control mechanisms. In Biological Engineering, ed. H. P. Schwan, 87-203. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.
Justesen, D. R. and A. W. Guy, eds. Biological efftcts of electromagnetic waves. Radio Sci.12, Suppl. 6(s) (1977).
Kaezmarek, L. K. Cation binding models for the interaction of membranes with EM fields. M.I.T. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 15 (1977): 54-60.
-------- . Frequency sensitive biochemical reactions. Biophys. Chem. 4 (1976): 249-252.
-------- . and W. R. Adey. The efflux of 4,5 Ca 2+ and (3H)-aminobutyric acid from cat cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 63 (1973): 331-342.
-------- . and-------- . Factors affecting the release of [14C] taurine from cat brain: The electrical effects of taurine on normal and seizure prone cortex. Brain Res. 76 (1974): 83-94.
-------- and-------- . Some chemical and electrophysiological effects of glutamate in cerebral cortex. J. Neurobiol 5 (1974): 231-241.
-------- and-------- . Weak electric gradients change ionic and transmitter fluxes in cortex. Brain Res. 66 (1974): 537-540.
Kaiser, F. Coherent oscillations in biological systems. II. Limit cycle collapse and the onset of traveling waves in Frohlich's brain wave mode. Z. Naturforschg. 33a (1978): 418-431.
Kalmijn, A. J. The detection of electric fields from inanimate and animate sources other than electric organs. In Handbook of Sensory Physiology, ed. A. Fessard, III. 3. Electroreceptors and Other Specialized Receptors in Lower Vertebrates, 147-200. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1974.
-------- . The electric sense of sharks and rays. J. Exp. Biol. 55 (1971): 371-383.
-------- . Electro-orientation in sharks and rays: Theory and experimental evidence. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Reference Series, Contract no. 73-39, 1-22, 1973.
-------- . Electroperception in sharks and rays. Nature 212 (1966): 1232-1233.
Kataoka, K., and E. DeRobertis. Histamine in isolated small nerve endings and synaptic vesicles of rat brain cortex. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 156 (1967): 114-125.
Katchalsky, A. Polyelectrolytes and their biological interaction. In Connective Tissue: Intercellular Macromolecules (Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by the New York Heart Association), 9- 42. Boston: Little, Brown, 1964.
Kazhinskiy, B. B. Biological radio communication. USAF, Foreign Technology Division, FTD-TT-62- 1923/1+2, 1962.
Keeton, W. T. Magnets interfere with pigeon homing. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 68 (1971): 102-106.
-------- . et al. Normal fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field influence pigeon orientation. J. Comp. Physiol. 95 (1974): 95-103.
Keilmann, F., and W. Grundler Nonthermal resonant action of millimeter microwaves on yeast growth. In Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems, ed. W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence, 59. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.
Kelsall, M. A., and P. Lewis. Mast cells in the brain. Federat. Proc. 23 (1964): 1107-1108.
Kendig, J. J. Anesthetics and pressure in nerve cells. In Molecular Mechanism of Anesthesia, ed. B. R. Fink, vol. 2. New York: Raven Press, 1981.
Kevanishvili, G. S., and T. G. Zhgenti. Primary mechanism of electromagnetic field effect on living organisms. Izv. Akad. Nauk. S.S.R. 62 (1971): 37-40.
Keynes, R. D. Evidence for structural changes during nerve activity and their relation to the conduction mechanism. In The Neurosciences: Second Study Program, ed. F. O. Schmitt, 707-714. New York: Rockefeller University Press, 1970.
Kholodov, Y. The effect of electromagnetic and magnetic fields on the central nervous system. NASA TT F 465, 1967. Trans.
-------- . Effects on the central nervous system. In Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields, ed. M. Barnothy, 196-200. New York: Plenum Press, 1964.
-------- . Magnetism in biology. Translation no. JPRS 60737. Washington, DC.: Joint Publication Research Service, Department of Commerce, 1973.
Kiernan, J. A. A comparative survey of the mast cells of the mammalian brain. J. Anat. 121 (1976): 303- 311.
-------- . Degranulation of mast cells following antidromic stimulation of cutaneous nerves. J. Anat. 111 (1971): 349-350.
Kimeldorf, D. J., and E. L. Hunt. Ionizing Radiation: Neural Function and Behaviour, 261-263. New York: Academic Press, 1965.
King, R. W. P., and T. T. Wu. The Scattering and Defraction of Waves. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959.
Kirkwood, J. G., and J. B. Shumaker. The influence of dipole moment fluctuations on the dielectric increment of proteins in solution. Proc, Nat. Acad. Sci. 38 (1952): 855-862.
Kirschbaum, R. N. Increasing growth rates and livability of mice with an ELF. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
-------- . and E. W. Kienholz. Increasing chicken growth rates with niobium and magnetic fields. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Kolin, A., et al. Stimulation of irritable tissues by means of an alternating magnetic field. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 102 (1959): 251-252.
König, H. L. Behavioral changes in human subjects associated with ELF electric fields. In ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects, ed. M. A. Persinger. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.
-------- . Biological effects of extremely low frequency electrical phenomena in the atmosphere. Interdiscip. Cycle Res. 2 (1971): 317-323.
-------- . ELF and VLF signal properties: Physical characteristics. In ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects, ed. M. A. Persinger, 9-34. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.
-------- . Environmental effects of atmospheric electric processes of very low frequency. USAF, Cambridge Research Laboratory, AF 19(628)-3880 T-G-232, January 1965. Transl.
Kopell, N. Reaction-diffusion equations and pattern formation. In Studies in Mathematical Biology, ed. S. A. Levin, 191-205. Washington, D.C.: Mathematics Association of America, 1978.
-------- . Waves, shocks, and target patterns in an oscillating chemical reagent. In Nonlinear Diffusion, ed. W. E. Fitzgibbon and H. F. Walker, 129-154. San Francisco Pitman, 1977.
Kornberg, H. A., et al. Health effects of occupational exposure to ELF fields. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Kouwenhoven, W. B., et al. Medical evaluation of men working in alternating current electric fields. IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Systems PAS-86, 4 (1967): 506.
Kreutzberg, G. W., ed. Physiology and Pathology of Dendrites. New York: Raven Press, 1975.
Krippner, S. Human Possibilities. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1980.
Kritikos, H. N., and H. P. Schwan. Hot spots generated in conducting spheres by electromagnetic waves: Biological implications. IEEE Tracts. Biomed. Eng. 19 (1972): 53-58.
-------- , et al. Effects of RF fields on nervous activities. Proceedings, Microwave Power Symposium, 54- 65, Waterloo, Ontario, 1975.
Krumpe, P. E., and M. S. Tockman. Evaluation of the health of personnel working near Project Sanguine beta test facility from 1971 to 1972. USN, Naval Medical Research Unit no. 4, Great Lakes, Ill., December 1972.
Krushausl, J. A. Solitons in physics. In Solitons and Condensed Matter Physics, ed. A. R. Bishop and T. Schneider, 22-26. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1978.
Labes, M. M. Magnetic field coupling with liquid crystalline structures. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Lagunoff, D. The mechanism of histamine release from mast cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 21 (1972): 1889-1896.
Lakhtakia, A., et al. Near-field absorption in prolate spheroidal models exposed to a small loop antenna of arbitrary orientation. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Large, D. B., and J. R. Wait. Theory of electromagnetic coupling phenomena in the earth-ionosphere cavity. J. Geophys. Res. 73 (1968): 4335-4362.
Lawrence, A. F., and W. R, Adey. Non-linear wave mechanisms in tissue-electromagnetic field interactions. DOE, Contract Report no. DE-A101-79 ET, 1979.
Lawrence, G. Electronics and brain control. Popular Electron. 4 (July 1973): 65.
Lawrence, J. H., et al., eds. Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, vols. 16-17. New York: Academic Press, 1978.
Lefever, R., and J. L. Denaubourg. On the changes in conductance and stability properties of electrically excitable membranes during voltage-clamp experiments. Adv. Chem. Phys. 29 (1975): 349-374.
Lehninger, A. L. The neuronal membrane. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 60 (1968): 1069-1080.
Lewis, A. J. A report by A. J. Lewis, Ph.D. Document EW-76-011, Supplemental Report Contract no. XG- 4208 (54-20) 75S, January 1976. [Report on Soviet parapsychology, the work of Gennady Sergeyev, magnetic field effects (ELF), psychotronics, bioplasma research, etc.]
Lieber, A. L., and C. R. Sherin. Homicides and the lunar cycle: Toward a theory of lunar influences on human emotional disturbances. Am. J. Psychiat. 129 (1972): 101-106.
Lin, J. C., et al. Microwave selective brain heating. J. Microwave Power 8 (1973): 275-286.
Lindstrom, L. H., and R. I. Magnusson. Interpretation of myoelectric power spectra: A model and its applications. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
Ling, G. N., et al. The physical state of solutes and water in living cells according to the association- induction hypothesis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 204 (1973): 6-47.
Lin-Liu, S., and W. R. Adey. Effect of ELF modulated 450 MHz field on calcium efflux from rat synaptosomes. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex,, Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Lissmann, H. W. On the function and evolution of electric organs in fish. J. Exp. Biol. 35 (1958): 156- 191.
Little, W. A. The existence of persistent states in the brain. Math. Biosci. 19 (1974): 101-120.
-------- . and G. L. Shaw. A statistical theory of short and long term memory. Behav. Biol. 14 (1975): 115-133.
Llaurado, J. G., et al. Biological and Clinical Effects of Low-Frequency Magnetic and Electric Fields. New York: C C Thomas, 1974.
Loewenstein, W. R. Cell-to-cell connections. In Cell Interactions (Third Petit Colloquium, London, November 1971), ed. L. G. Silvestri, 296-298. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1972.
-------- . Cellular communication by permeable junctions. In Cell Membranes: Biochemistry, Cell Biology and Pathology, ed. G. Weissman and R. Claiborne, 105-114. New York: Hospital Practice, 1975.
-------- . Cellular communication through membrane junctions. Arch. Intern. Med. 129 (1972): 299- 305.
-------- . Intercellular communication. Sci. Am. 22 (May 1970): 78-86.
-------- . Intercellular communication through membrane junctions and cancer etiology. In Membrane Transformations in Neoplasias, ed. J. Schultz and R. E. Block, vol. 8, Miami Winter Symposia, 103-120. New York: Academic Press, 1974.
-------- . Membrane junctions in growth and differentiation. Federat. Proc. 32 (1973): 60-64.
-------- . Permeability of membrane junctions. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 137 (1966): 441-472.
-------- . Permeable junctions: Permeability, formation, and genetic aspects. In The Nervous System: The Basic Neurosciences, ed. D. B. Tower, vol. 1, 419-426. New York: Raven Press, 1975.
Luben, R. A., and C. D. Cain. Use of bone cell hormone response systems to investigate bioelectromagnetic effects on membranes in vitro. In Nonlinear Electrodyamics in Biological Systems, ed. W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence, 23. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.
Ludwig, H. W. Electric and magnetic field strengths in the open and in shielded rooms in the ULF- to LF-zone. In ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects, ed. M. A. Persinger, 35-80. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.
-------- . A hypothesis concerning the absorption mechanism of atmospherics in the nervous system. Int. J. Biometeorol. 12 (1968): 93-98.
-------- . Shielding effect of materials in the ULF, ELF and VLF region. Int. J. Biometeorol. 17 (1973): 207-211.
-------- . et al. Physiological effects of electromagnetic fields in the ELF region. II. A review. Arch. Met. Geophys. Biol. B 21 (1973): 110-116.
Lu, S., et al. Neuroendocrine and cardiodynamic response of the dog subjected to cranial exposure to 2450 MHz (CW) microwave. Proceedings, Microwave Power Symposium, Waterloo, Ontario, 1975.
-------- , et al. Thermogenic and cardiovascular regulation in dogs cranially exposed to 2450 Mhz (CW) microwave. Proc. IEEE-S-MTT (Microwave Symposium), Atlanta, Ga., June 12-14, 1974.
Lux, H. D., and P. Schubert. Some aspects of the electroanatomy of dendrites. In Physiology and Pathology of Dendrites: Advances in Neurology, ed. G. W. Kreutzberg, vol. 12, 29-44. New York: Raven Press, 1975.
Maass, J. A., and M. M. Asa. Contactless nerve stimulation and signal detection by inductive transducer. IEEE Trans. Magn. 6 (1970): 322-326.
McAffee, R. D. Neurophysiological effect of 3-cm microwave radiation. Am. J. Physiol. 200 (1961): 192.
McClain, D. S., and G. M. Edelman. Surface modulation and transmembrane control. In The Molecular Basis of Cell-Cell Interaction, ed. R. A. Lerner and D. Bergsma, 1-28. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1978.
McCleave, J. D., et al. Perception and effects on locomotor activity in American eels and Atlantic salmon of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields. Final report prepared at University of Maine for ONR, 1974.
McConnell, H. M. Coupling between lateral and perpendicular motion in biological membranes. In Functional Linkage in Biomolecular Systems, ed. F. O. Schmitt, D. M. Schneider, and D. Crothers, 123-131. New York: Raven Press, 1975.
MacGregor, R.J. A brief survey of literature relating to the influence of low intensity microwaves on nervous function. Rand Corp, Publication no. P 4397, June 1970.
MacGregor, R. J. A direct mechanism for the influence of microwave radiation on neuroelectric potentials. Rand Corp., Publication no. P 4398, June 1970.
-------- . Intrinsic oscillations in neural networks: A linear model for the nth order loop. Rand Corp., Publication no. R 642, February 1971.
-------- . A possible mechanism for the influence of electromagnetic radiation of neuroelectric potentials. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Techn. 21 (1979): 914-918.
-------- . A simulation study of coincidence detection in the dendrites of a single nerve cell. Rand Corp., Publication no. RM-5598-RC, December 1969.
McLees, B. D., and E. D. Finch. Analysis of reported physiologic effects of microwave detection. Adv. Biol. Med. Phys. 14 (1973): 163-223.
McPherron, R. L., C. T. Russell, and P. J. Coleman. Fluctuating magnetic fields in the magnetosphere. II. ULF waves. Space Sci. Rev. 13 (1972): 411-454.
Magnusson, C. E., and H. C. Stevens. Visual sensations caused by changes in the strength of a magnetic field. Am. J. Physiol. 29 (1911): 124-136.
Mahlum, D. D. Mechanisms of biomagnetic effects. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Marha, K., et al. Electromagnetic Fields and the Life Environment. San Francisco: San Francisco Press, 1971.
Marino, A. A., and R. O. Becker. Biological effects of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: A review. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 9 (1977): 131-147.
-------- , et al. In vivo bioelectrochemical changes associated with exposure to extremely low frequency electric fields. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 9 (1977): 433-441.
Marr, M. J., et al. The effect of low energy ELF electromagnetic radiation on operant behavior in the pigeon and the rat. Final Report, prepared at Georgia Institute of Technology for ONR, Contract no. N00014-67-0159-0009, 1973.
Marton, J. P. Conjectures on superconductivity and cancer. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 5 (1973): 259-270.
Mascarenhas, S. Electrets in biophysics. J. Electrostat. 1 (1975): 141-146.
Massoudi, H., et al. Long-wavelength analysis of electromagnetic absorption in prolate spheroidal models of man and animals irradiated by a small loop antenna. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Mathewson, N. S., et al. Extremely low frequency (ELF) vertical electric field exposure of rats: A search for growth, food consumption, and blood metabolite alterations. USAF. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, January 1977.
Maxey, E. S. Critical aspects of human versus terrestrial electromagnetic symbiosis USNC/URSI Meeting, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., Oct. 20-23, 1975.
Maxwell, E. L., and D. L. Stone. Natural noise fields from 1 c/s to 100 kc/s. ONR, Report prepared at Deco Electronics for ONR, Report no. 371-590, 1960.
Medici, R. C. Methods of assaying behavioral change as a function of exposure to weak electric fields. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Menzel, D. H., and W. W. Salisbury. Audio-frequency radio waves from the sun. Nature 161 (1948): 91.
Meyer, M. E., and D. R. Lamb. Sensitivity of the pigeon to change in the magnetic field. Psychonom. Sci. 5 (1966): 349-350.
Michaelson, S. M. Biological effects of microwave exposure. [Proceedings,] Medical College of Virginia Symposium, 1970.
-------- . Human exposure to non-ionizing radiation energy-potential hazards and safety standards. Proc. IEEE 60 (1972): 389.
--------, et al. Effects of electromagnetic radiations on physiological responses. Aerospace Med. 38 (1967): 293-298.
Michalke, W., and W. R. Loewenstein. Communication between cells of different type. Nature 232 (1971): 121-122.
Milroy, W. C., ed. Biomedical aspects of nonionizing radiation. Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren, Va., 10 July 1973.
Milroy, W. C., et al. Electromagnetic pulse radiation: A potential biological hazard? J. Microwave Power 9 (1974): 213-218.
Mitchell, D. C., et al. Hyperactivity and disruption of operant behavior in rats after multiple exposures to microwave radiation. Radio Sci. 12 (1977): 163-271.
Mittler, S. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation and genetic aberrations. Final Report, Northern Illinois University, September 1972.
Mohler, R., et al. A systems approach to immunology. Proc. IEEE 68 (August 1980): 964-977.
Moseley, J. I. et al. Unit activity during focal cortical hypothermia in the normal cortex. Exp. Neurol. 37 (1972): 152-163.
Murr, L. The biophysics of plant growth in a reversed electrostatic field. Int. J. Biometeorol. 10 (1966): 135-146.
Nahas, G. G. Magnetic field effects on rodents. In Magnetic Field Effects on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Nazarea, A. D. Electric fields and self-coherent patterns and structures in chemical systems: Large-scale effects and biological implications. J. Chem. Phys. 9 (1979): 415-449.
Neumann, E., and K. Rosenheck. Permeability changes induced by electric impulses in vesicular membranes. J. Membr. Biol. 10 (1972): 279-290.
Nicholson, C. Brain-cell microenvironment as a communication channel. In The Neurosciences: Fourth Study Program, ed. F. O. Schmitt and F. C. Woden, 457-476. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1977.
-------- . Dynamics of the brain cell microenvironment. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 18 (1980): 275-289.
Nicolas, G., and I. Prigogine. Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems. New York: John Wiley, 1977.
Nunez, W., and M. Gershon. Species differences in mast cells of the thyroid gland. Endocrinol. 92 (1973): 152-159.
Ochs, S. Elements of Neurophysiology. New York: John Wiley, 1965.
Ogawa, T., et al. Observations of natural ELF and VLF electromagnetic noises using ball antennas. J. Geom. Geoelectr. 18 (1966): 443-454.
O'Konski, C. T. Electric properties of macromolecules. V. Theory of ionic polarization in polyelectrolytes. J. Phys. Chem. 64 (1960): 605-619.
O'Neil, J. J. Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla. New York: I. Washburn, 1944.
Orgel, A. R., and J. C. Smith. Test of the magnetic theory of homing. Science 120 (1954): 891-892.
Orme, J. E. Time, Experience, and Behavior. New York: American Elsevier, 1969.
Ormenui, I. Possible effect of ELF range atmospherics of 3-cps range on traffic accidents in a metropolitan area in Hungary. Int. J. Biometeorol. 16 (Suppl.) (1972): 93-94.
Ossenkopp, K. P. Maturation and open-field behavior in rats exposed prenatally to an extremely low frequency rotating magnetic field. Psychol. Report 30 (1972): 371-374.
-------- , and M. D. Ossenkopp. Self-inflicted injuries and the lunar cycle: A report. J. Interdiscip. Cycle Res. 4 (1973): 337-348.
-------- , and J. Shapiro. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 0.5 Hz low-intensity rotating magnetic field on white Peking ducklings. Am. Zool. 12 (1972): 650.
-------- , et al. Prenatal exposure to an extremely low-intensity rotating magnetic field and increase in thyroid and testicle weights in rats. Devel. Psychobiol. 5 (1972): 275-285.
Oncley, J. L. The electric movements and relaxation times of proteins as measured from their influence upon the dielectric constants of solutions. In Proteins, Amino Acids and Peptides as Ions and Dipolar Ions, ed. E. J. Cohn and J. T. Edsall, 543-568. New York: Hafner, 1965.
Ortoleva, P. J., and J. Rosee. Response of unstable chemical systems to external perturbations. J. Chem. Phys. 56 (1972): 293-294.
Olsen, R. G. Evidence for microwave-induced acoustic resonances in biological material. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Olsson, Y. Mast cells in the nervous system. Int. Rev. Cytol. 24 (1968): 27-70.
Padawer, J. The ins and outs of mast cell function. Am. J. Anat. 141 (1974): 399-402.
Parker, J. H., and E. F. Carr. Anomalous alignment and domains in a nematic liquid crystal. J. Chem. Phys. 55 (1971): 1846-1850.
Patel, V. L., and L. J. Cahill. Evidence of hydromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere and of their propagation to the earth's surface. Phys. Rev. Lett. 12 (1964): 213-215.
Pauly, H., and H. P. Schwan. Dielectric properties and ion mobility in erythrocytes. Biophys. J. 6 (1966): 612-639.
Pennock, B. E., and H. P. Schwan. Further observations on the electrical properties of the hemoglobin- bound water. J. Phys. Chem. 73 (1969): 2600-2610.
Perkel, D. H., and T. M. Bullock. Neural coding. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 6 (1968): 221-248.
Persinger, M. A. Day time wheel running activity in laboratory rats following geomagnetic event of 5-6 July 1974. Int. J. Biometeorol. 20 (1976): 19-22.
-------- . Effects of magnetic fields on animal behavior. In Progress in Biometeorology: Animal Biometeorology, ed. H. D. Johnson, 177-182. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger, 1976.
-------- . ELF electric and magnetic field effects: The patterns and the problems. In ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects, ed. M. A. Persinger, 275-310. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.
-------- . Mast cells in the brain: Possibilities for physiological psychology. Physiol. Psychol. 5 (1977): 166-176.
-------- . Open field behavior in rats exposed prenatally to a low intensity-low frequency rotating magnetic field. Devel. Psychobiol. 2 (1969): 168-171.
-------- . Possible cardiac driving by an external rotating magnetic field. Symposium on Biological Effects of Natural, Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields. Sixth Int. Biometeorol. Cong., Noordwijk, the Netherlands, Sept. 3-9, 1972; Int. J. Biometeorol. 17 (1973) : 263-266. [This issue of Int. J. Biometeorol. contains 7 other papers from the symposium.]
-------- . Prenatal exposure to an ELF rotating magnetic field, ambulatory behavior, and lunar distance at birth: A correlation. Psychol. Report 28 (1971): 435-438.
-------- . Studies on the biological effects of low and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, 1973-1978. [Monograph available from the author.]
-------- . and D. J. Coderre. Thymus mast cell number following perinatal and adult exposure to low intensity 0.5 Hz magnetic fields. Int. J. Biometeorol. 22 (1978): 123-128.
-------- . and W. S. Foster. ELF rotating magnetic fields: Prenatal exposure and adult behavior. Arch. Met. Geophys. Biol. 18 (1970): 363-369.
-------- . and K. P. Ossenkopp. Some behavioral effects of pre- and neonatal exposure to an ELF rotating magnetic field. Int. J. Biometeorol. 17 (1973): 217-220.
-------- . and J. J. Pear. Prenatal exposure to an ELF rotating magnetic field and subsequent increase in conditioned suppression. Devel. Psychobiol. 5 (1972): 269- 274.
-------- , et al. Behavioral changes in adult rats exposed to ELF magnetic fields. Int. J. Biometeorol. 16 (1972): 155-162.
-------- , et al. Physiological changes in adult rats exposed to ELF rotating magnetic. fields. Int. J. Biometeorol. 16 (1972): 163-172.
-------- , et al. Psychophysiological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: A review. Percept. Motor Skills 36 (1973): 1139-1159. [Note: This is perhaps the single most pertinent reference on ELF in this bibliography.--AU.]
-------- . Thirty-eight blood tissue and consumptive measures from rats exposed perinatally and as adults to 0.5 Hz magnetic fields. Int. J. Biometeorol. 22 (1978): 213-226.
Petersen, W. F. E. Man, Weather, Sun. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1947.
Petrov, J. R. Influence of microwave radiation on the organism of man and animals. NTIS, Report no. 72-22073, 1972.
Photiades, D. P., et al. Electrosleep in man by a combination of magneto-inductive and transtemporal electric currents. In The Nervous System and Electric Currents, ed. N. L. Wulfsohn and A. Sances, 153-158. New York: Plenum Press, 1970.
Piccardi, G. The Chemical Basis of Medical Climatology. Springfield, Ill.: C C Thomas, 1952.
Picton, H. D. Some responses of Drosophila to weak magnetic and electrostatic fields. Nature 211 (1966): 303-304.
Pierce, E. T. Some ELF phenomena. J. Res. 64 (1960): 383-386.
Pinneo, L. K., et al. The neural effects of microwave radiation, USAF, Rome Air Force Development Center, Report no. TRD-62-231, AD 277684, 1962.
Pionsey, R. Action potential sources and their volume conductor fields. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
Pohl, M. A. Natural AC electric fields in and about cells. In Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems, ed. W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence, 87ff. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.
-------- and J. S. Crane. Dielectrophoresis of cells. Biophys. J. 11 (1971): 711-727.
-------- and-------- . Dielectrophoretic force. J. Theoret. Biol. 37 (1972): 1-13.
-------- and I. Hawk. Separation of living and dead cells by dielectrophoresis. Science 152 (1966): 647- 649.
Polk, C., and F. Fitchen. Schumann resonances of the earth-ionosphere cavity: Extremely low frequency reception at Kingston. U.S. Nat. Bur. Stand. J. Res. Radio Propagation 66D (May-June 1962).
Popa, M. M. Response of guinea-pig adrenals to continuous and arrhythmically interrupted low frequency electromagnetic fields.
Proc. 5th Biometeorol. Cong., ed. S. W. Tromp and W. H. Weihe, vol. 4, 129. Amsterdam: Springer-Verlag, 1969.
Popp, F.-A., et al. Electromagnetic Bio-Information. Munich: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1979.
Poppel, E., and H. Giedke. Diurnal variation of time perception. Psychol. Forschg. 34 (1970): 182-198.
Pressman, A. S. The action of microwaves on living organisms and biological structures. Sov. Phys. Usp. 8 (1965): 463-488.
-------- . Electromagnetic Fields and Life. New York: Plenum Press, 1970.
-------- . The role of electromagnetic fields in life processes. Biofiz. 9 (1964): 131-134. [-------- .] Proceedings, Ad Hoc Committee jbr the Review of Biomedical and Ecological Effects of ELF Radiation. USN, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, 1973.
Raemer, H. R. On the spectrum of terrestrial radio noise at extremely low frequencies. U.S. Nat. Bur. Stand. J. Res., Radio Propagation 65D (November-December 1961).
Ramon, C., et al. Effect of low-frequency weak magnetic fields on E. Coli bacteria. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Ravitz, J. L. History, measurements, and applicability of periodic changes in the electromagnetic field in health and disease. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 98 (1962): 1144-1201.
Rein, G., and R. Dixey. Neurotransmitter release stimulated in a clonal nerve cell line by low intensity pulsed magnetic fields. In Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems, ed. W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence, 79-86. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.
Reno, J. L. Microwave reflection, diffraction and transmission studies of man. NAMRL, Report no. 1199, February 1974.
Rentsch, W. Magneto-inductive transmission of stimuli to the brain, in electrotherapeutic sleep and electroanesthesia. Proceedings, First Annual Symposium (Graz, Austria, 12-17 Sept. 1966), ed. F. M. Wagenweder and O. St. Schuy, 161-168. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1967.
Reynolds, D. V., and A. E. Sjoberg, eds. Neuroelectric Research. Springfield, Ill.: C C Thomas, 1971. [This book contains papers by 81 contributors.]
Riesen, W. H., et al. A pilot study of the interaction of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields with brain organelles. HTRI, Technical Memorandum no. 3, HTRI Project E6185, Contract N00039-71-C-0111, 1971.
Roberts, A. M. Effect of the electric fields on mice. Nature 223 (1969): 639.
Romig, M. F., and D. L. Lamar. Anomalous sounds and electromagnetic effects associated with fireball entry. Rand Corp., RM-3724-ARPA, July 1963. Rosenblum, W. I. A possible role for mast cells in controlling the diameter of arterioles on the surface of the brain. Brain Res. 49 (1973): 75-82.
Russo, F., and W. E. Caldwell. Biomagnetic phenomena: Some implications for the behavioral and neurophysiological sciences. Genet. Psychol. Monogr. 84 (1971): 177-243.
Saito, M., et al. Response of nonspherical biological particles to alternating electric fields. Biophys. J. 6 (1966): 313-327.
Saito, T. Geomagnetic pulsations. Space Sci. Rev. 10 (1969): 319-411.
Sampson, H. W., et al. An ultrastructural investigation of calcium-dependent granules in the rat neurophil. Brain Res. 22 (1970): 157-162. [-------- .] Sanguine Division, Sanguine System Final Environmental Impact Statement, 77-78. USN, Naval Electronics Systems Command (PME 117-21), 1972.
Scheich, H., and T. H. Bullock. The detection of electric fields from electric organs. In Handbook of Sensory Physiology, ed. A. Fessard, III. 3. Electroreceptors in Lower Vertebrates, 201-256. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1974.
Schiff, J. and W. R. Loewenstein. Development of a receptor on a foreign nerve fiber in a Pacinian corpuscle. Science 177 (1972): 712-715.
Schmidt, S., and P. Ortoleva. Multiple chemical waves induced by applied electric field. Chem. Phys. 67 (1978): 1010-1015.
-------- .and-------- . A new chemical wave equation for ionic systems. J. Chem. Phys. 67 (1977): 3771-3776.
Schmitt, F. O., and F. E. Sampson. Brain cell microenvironment. In Neuroscience Research Symposium Summaries, ed. F. O.
Schmitt et al., vol. 4, 191-325. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970.
-------- , et al. Electronic processing of information of brain cells. Science 193 (1976): 114-120.
Schmitt, O. H., and R. D. Tucker. Human perception of moderate strength low-frequency magnetic fields. IEEE meeting, 1973. Typescript.
Schumann, W. O. Elektrische Eigenschwingungen des Hohlraumes Erde-Luft-Ionosphäre. Z. angew. u. Phys. 9 (1957): 373-378.
-------- . Über die strahlungslosen Eigenschwingungen einer leitenden Kugel, die von einer Luftschicht und einer Tonosphärenhülle ungeben ist. Z. Naturforschg. 7A (1952): 149-154.
Schwan, H. P. Alternating current spectroscopy of biological substances. Proc. IEEE 47 (1959): 1841- 1855.
-------- . Biological impedance determinations. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 66 (Suppl. ) (1965): 512.
-------- . Biological hazards from exposure to ELF electrical fields and potentials. NWL, Technical Report no. TR-2713, 1972.
-------- . Characteristics of absorption and energy transfer of microwaves and ultrasound in tissues. In Medical Physics, ed. O. Blassers, 1-7. Chicago: Yearbook Publishers, 1960.
-------- . Determination of biological impedances. In W. L. Nastuk, Physical Techniques in Biological Research, vol. 6, 323-406. New York: Academic Press, 1963
-------- . Electrical properties of bound water. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 125 (1965): 344-354.
-------- . Electrical properties of tissue and cell suspension. Adv. Bioi. Med. Phys. 5 (1957):147-209
-------- . Interaction of microwave and radio frequency radiation with biological systems. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Techn. 19 (1971): 146-152.
-------- . Microwave biophysics. In Microwave Power Engineering, ed. E. Okress, vol. 2, 213-244. New York: Academic Press, 1968.
-------- . Microwave radiation: Biophysical considerations and standards criteria. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 19 (1972): 304-312.
-------- . Principles of interaction of microwave fields at the cellular and molecular 1eve1. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation (Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973), ed. P. Czerski et al., 152-159. Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers, 1974.
-------- . To provide for the protection of the public health from radiation emissions. U.S. Senate, 19th Congress, Hearings Before the Committee on Commerce, May 13, 1968, 699-718.
-------- . and K. R. Foster. RF-field interactions with biological systems: Electric properties and biophysical mechanisms. Proc. IEEE 68 (January 1980).
-------- . and G. M. Piersol. The absorption of electromagnetic energy in body tissues--Review and critical analysis. I. Biophysical aspects. Am. J. Phys. Med. 33 (1954):371-404.
--------and-------- . The absorption of electromagnetic energy in body tissues. II. Physiological and clinical apsects. Am. J. Phys. Med. 34 (1955): 425-448.
--------and L. D. Sher. Alternating-current field-induced forces and their biological implications. J. Electrochem. Soc. 116 (1969): 22C-26C.
-------- , et al. Complex permittivity of water at 250 C. J. Chem. Phys. 64 (1976): 2257-2258.
-------- , et al. The electrical properties of bilayer membranes. Abstracts, 10th Annual Meeting, Biophysical Society, Boston,1966.
Schwartz, J. Histamine as a transmitter in the brain. Life Sci. 17 (1975): 503-518.
-------- , et al. Histamine formation in the rat brain in vivo Effects of histidine loads. J. Neurochem. 19 (1972): 801-810.
Schwarz, G. A basic approach to a general theory for cooperative [?] intramolecular conformation changes of linear biopolymers. Biopolymers 5 (1967): 321-324.
-------- . Cooperative binding in linear biopolymers. I. Fundamental static and dynamic properties. Eur. J. Biochem. 12 (1970): 442-453.
-------- . General equation for the mean electrical energy of a dielectric body in an alternating electrical field. J. Chem. Phys. 39 (1963): 2387-2388.
-------- , et al. On the orientation of nonspherical particles in an alternating electrical field. J. Chem. Phys. 43 (1965): 2562-2569.
Sclabassi, K. J., et al. Complex pattern evoked somatosensory responses in the study of multiple sclerosis. Proc. IEEE 65 (May 1977).
Seamon, K. B. Calcium and magnesium-dependent conformational states of calmodulin as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Biochem. 19 (1980): 207-215.
Sel'kov, E. E. Oscillations in biological and chemical systems. Eur. J. Biochem. 4 (1968): 79-86.
Servantie, B., et al. Pharmacologic effects of a pulsed microwave field. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation (Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973), ed. P. Czerski et al, 36-45. Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers, 1974.
-------- . Synchronization of cortical neurons by a pulsed microwave field as evidenced by spectral analysis of electrocorticograms from the white rat. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 82-86.
Sharma, R. C. Mechanism of characteristic behaviour of cells in an alternating electric field. Nature 214 (1967): 83-84.
Shatten, V. H., and J. M. Wilcox. Response of the geomagnetic activity index Kp to the interplanetary magnetic field. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (November 1967): 5185-5191.
Sheer, D. E. Electrical Stimulation of the Brain. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1961.
Sheppard, A. R. High frequency permittivity measurements in the time and frequency domains. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
-------- . Magnetic field interactions in man and other mammals: An overview. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
-------- and M. Eisenbud. Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields of Extremely Low Frequency. New York: New York University Press, 1977.
-------- , et al. ELF electric fields alter neuronal excitability in aplysia neurons, Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
-------- , et al. Extracellular alternating currents change firing rate in aplysin pacemaker neurons. Soc. for Neurosci. Abstr. 6 (November 1980).
-------- , et al. Models of long-range order in cerebral macromolecules: Effects of sub-ELF and of modulated VHF and UHF fields. Radio Sci. 14 (November-December 1979): 141-145.
Sher, L. D. Mechanical effects of AC fields on particles dispersed in a liquid: Biological implication. Diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penna., 1963.
-------- , et al. On the possibility of nonthermal biological effects of pulsed electromagnetic radiation. Biophys. 10 (1970): 970-979.
Sholl, D. A. The Organization of the Cerebral Cortex. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1956.
Silverman, C. Nervous and behavioral effects of microwave radiation in humans. Am. J. Epidemiol. 97 (1973): 219.
Soyka, F. The Ion Effect. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1976.
Spiegel, R. J., and W. T. Joines. A semiclassical theory for nerve excitation by a low intensity electromagnetic field. Bull. Math. Biol. 35 (1973): 591-605.
Spirkin, A. Getting to know psycho-biophysical reality. USAF, Foreign Technology Division, Report no. FTD-ID (RS) T-1175-80.
Stein, M., R. C. Schiavi, and M. Camerion. Influence of brain and behavior on the immune system. Science 191 (1976): 435-440.
Stern, S., et al. Detection of 60 Hz electric fields by rats: Preliminary results. Second Annual Meeting, Bioelectromagnetics
Society, San Antonio, Tex., Sept. 14-18, 1980.
Stewart, G. T. Change of phase and change of state in biological systems. Molec. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 7 (1969): 75-102.
-------- . Liquid crystals of lipid in normal and athcromatous tissue. Nature 183 (1959): 873-875.
-------- . Some physico-chemical properties of paracrystalline spherulites of biological origin. Nature 192 (1961): 624-625.
Stratton, J. A. Electromagnetic Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1941.
Sturrock, P. A. Generation of radio noise in the vicinity of the earth. U.S. Nat. Bur. Stand. J. Res., Radio Propagation 66D (March-April 1962).
Subbota, A. G. The effects of a pulsed super high frequency field on the higher nervous activity of dogs. Bull. Exp. Med. 46 (1958): 1206-1211.
Sugiura, M., and J. P. Heppner. Electric and magnetic fields in the earth's environment. In American Institute of Physics Handbook, sec. 5, 265-303. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.
Swenberg, C. E. Theoretical remarks on low frequency magnetic field interactions with biological systems. In Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems, ed. T. S. Tenforde. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Swicord, M. L., G. S. Edwards, and C. C. Davis. Strong interactions of radiofrequency fields with nucleic acid. In Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems, ed. W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence, 35- 58. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.
Szuts, E. Z,, and R, A. Cone. Rhodopsin: Light activated release of calcium. Federat. Proc. 33 (1974): 1471. [Abstract.]
Tabichers, L. Y., et al. Apparatus for the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic diseases with heat, light, sound, and VHF electromagnetic radiation. U.S. Patent no. 3,733,049.
Takashima, S. Membrane capacity of giant squid axon during hyper- and depolarizations. J. Membr. Biol. 27 (1976): 21-39.
-------- and A. Minakata. Dielectric behavior of biological macromolecules. In Digest of Dielectric Literature, ed. W. Vaughn. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, 1976.
-------- and H. P. Schwan. Passive electrical properties of squid axon membrane. J. Membr. Biol. 17 (1974): 51-68.
-------- , et al. Effects of modulated KF energy on the EEG of mammalian brains, II. Appearance of fast and slow waves after chronic irradiations. Proceedings of the 1978 Symposium on Electromngnetic Fields in Biological Systems, Ottawa, Ontario, June 28-30, 1978.
Tasaki, I. Evolution of theories of nerve excitation. In The Nervous System, ed. D. B. Tower, vol. III. The Basic Neurosciences, 177-195. New York: Raven Press, 1975.
Tenforde, T. S., ed. Magnetic Field Effect on Biological Systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.
Teng, H. C., and H. E. Howard. The relationship between sudden changes in weather and the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction. Am. Heart J. 49 (1955): 9-20.
Tepley, L. R., and K. D. Amundsen. Notes on sub ELF emissions observed during magnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res. 69 (1964): 3749-3754.
Toomey, J., and C. Polk. Research on extremely low-frequency propagation with particular emphasis on Schumann resonance and related phenomena. Bedford, England: Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1970.
Triffet, T., and H. S. Green. Information and energy flow in a simple nervous system. J. Theor. Biol. 86 (1980): 3-44.
Tromp, S. W. Medical Biometeorology. New York: Elsevier, 1963.
-------- . Psychical Physics. New York: Elsevier, 1949.
-------- . Seasonal and yearly fluctuations in meteorologically induced electromagnetic wave patterns in the atmosphere (period 1956-1968) and their possible biological significance. Interdiscip. Cycle Res. 1 (1970): 193-199. Trullinger, S. E. Where do solitons go from here? In Solitons and Condensed Matter Physics, ed. A. R. Bishop and T. Schneider, 338-340. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1978.
Tyler, P. E., ed. Biologic effects or nonionizing radiation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (February 1975).
Uteush, E. V. Research on the psychophysiological peculiarities of the operator. USAF, Foreign Technology Division, Report no. FTD-MT-24-57-1970.
Vaccaro, S. R., and H. S. Green. Ionic processes in excitable membranes. J. Theor. Biol. 81 (1979): 771- 802.
Valentinuzzi, M. Magnetobiology. Downey, Calif.: North American Aviation, 1961.
Von Holst, E. Electrically controlled behavior. Sci. Am. 206 (March 1962): 50-59.
Vyalov, A. M., et al. On the problem of the effect of constant and variable magnetic fields on the human organism. In Occupational Pathology, ed. A. P. Shisskova, 169-175. Moscow: Ministry of Health, 1964. [Translation available.]
Wachtel, H. et al. Effects of low intensity microwaves on isolated neurons. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247 (1975): 46-62.
Wade, N. Fischer-Spassky charges: "What did the Russians have in mind?" Science 177 1972): 778.
Walcott, C., and R. P. Green. Orientation of homing pigeons altered by a change in the direction of an applied magnetic field. Science 184 (1974): 180-182.
Wallach, D. F. H., and P. H. Zahler. Protein conformation in cellular membranes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 56 (1966): 1552-1559.
Waltmann, N. Electrical properties and fine structure of the ampullary canals of Lorenzini. Acta Physiol. Scand. 66 (Suppl. 264) (1966): 1-60.
Wang, H. H., and W. R. Adey. Effects of cations and hyaluronidase on cerebral electrical impedance. Exp. Neurol. 25 (1969): 70-84.
-------- , et al. Calcium, mucopolysaccharides, and cerebral impedance. Federat. Proc. 27 (1968): 749. [Abstract.] Wever, R. Different aspects of the studies of human circadian rhythms under the influence of weak electric fields. In Chronobiology, ed. L. E. Scheving, F. Halbert, and J. E. Pauly, 694-699. Tokyo Igako Shoin, 1974.
-------- . The effects of electric fields on circadian rhythms in man. Life Sci. Space Res. 8 (1970): 177- 187.
-------- . ELF-effects on human circadian rhythms. In ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects, ed. M. A. Persinger, 101-144. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.
-------- . Human circadian rhythms under the influence of weak electric fields and the different aspects of these studies. Int. J. Biometeorol. 17 (1973): 227-232.
-------- . Influence of electric fields on some parameters of circadian rhythms in man. In Biochronometry, ed. M. Menaker, 117-132. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1971.
-------- . Influence of light on human circadian rhythms. Nord. Council Arct. Res. Report 10 (1974): 33-47.
-------- . A mathematical model for circadian rhythms. In Circadian Clocks, ed. J. Aschoff, 47-63. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1965.
Wieske, C. W. Human sensitivity to electric fields. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation: Proceedings of the First National Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation Symposium, vol. 1, 467-475. Distributed by Plenum Press, New York, 1963.
Williamson, S. J., et al. Evoked neuromagnetic fields of the human brain. J. Appl. Phys. 50 (March 1979). Wortz, E. C., et al. Biophysical aspects of parapsychology. Garrett Airesearch Corp., Document no. 75- 11096A, 1975.
-------- . Novel biophysical information transfer mechanisms (NBIT). Garrett Airesearch Corp. Document no. 76-13197, Contract no. XG-4208 (54-20) 75S, January 1976.
Zeeman, E. C. Primary and secondary waves in developmental biology. In Lectures on Mathematics in the Life Sciences, ed. E. C. Zeeman, 69-101. Providence, RI: American Mathematics Society, 1974.
Zhokov, V. P., and E. I. Indeikin. Relationship between acute attacks of glaucoma and changes in the magnetic field of the earth. Vestn. Ophthalmol. 5 (1970): 29-30.